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  • strains
  • We conclude that studies of HIV-1 neutralization that rely on strains adapted to growth in transformed T-cell lines yield the misleading impression that HIV-1 is readily neutralized. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Humans
  • These concepts became more sharply focused with the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the recognition that it can infect a critical cell involved in the regulation of the immune response of humans, namely, the CD4 + T lymphocyte. (springer.com)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4
  • Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 to CXCR4 induces mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of Fas signaling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CXCR4 appears to play an important role in gp120-induced cell death, but the mechanisms involved in this apoptotic process remain poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To get insight into the signal transduction pathways connecting CXCR4 to apoptosis following gp120 binding, we used different cell lines expressing wild-type CXCR4 and a truncated form of CD4 that binds gp120 but lacks the ability to transduce signals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, following coculture with cells expressing gp120, a Fas-independent apoptosis involving mitochondria and caspase activation is also observed in primary umbilical cord blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing high levels of CXCR4. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Receptor recognition by HIV-1 occurs via interactions between the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (Env), gp120, and CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the binding of CXCR4-using HIV-1-infected effector T cells to primary CD4(+)/CXCR4(+) target T cells results in rapid recruitment to the interface of CD4, CXCR4, talin, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 on the target cell, and of Env and Gag on the effector cell. (nih.gov)
  • CXCR4 polarization was analyzed in the absence of coclustering with Env because the CXCR4 mAb does not bind gp120-CXCR4 complexes and, hence, did not consistently demonstrate strong colocalization between these molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The decrease in CXCR4 staining was probably the result of progressive CXCR4 engagement by gp120, preventing binding of the detection mAb. (nih.gov)
  • CCR5
  • To understand the molecular basis of the binding of chemokines and HIV-1 to CCR5, we developed a number of mAbs that inhibit the various interactions of CCR5, and mapped the binding sites of these mAbs using a panel of CCR5/CCR2b chimeras. (nih.gov)
  • One mAb termed 2D7 completely blocked the binding and chemotaxis of the three natural chemokine ligands of CCR5, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, to CCR5 transfectants. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest a complicated pattern of HIV-1 gp120 binding to different regions of CCR5, but a relatively simple pattern for chemokine binding. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that the second extracellular loop of CCR5 is an ideal target site for the development of inhibitors of either chemokine or HIV-1 binding to CCR5. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously described anti-CCR5 mAbs that inhibit HIV-1 binding, but not chemokine binding (19). (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) R5 isolates that predominantly use CCR5 as a coreceptor are frequently described as macrophage tropic. (umassmed.edu)
  • ASSAY ACE: Aaron Diamond's Alexandra Trkola helped develop an assay that characterized the binding mechanisms of the CCR5 coreceptor, which HIV uses, along with CD4, to gain initial entry into cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • HeLa Cells
  • Computational cluster analysis of HIV-1 Env membrane distribution.Global cluster analysis of Env distribution at the plasma membrane was performed based on super-resolution images of HeLa cells transfected with pCHIV/pCHIVmEos.FP, pCHIV. (nih.gov)
  • B) Differential distribution of cluster size for Env(wt) on the surface of HeLa cells in the presence and absence of other viral proteins. (nih.gov)
  • broadly
  • Both of these glycans appear in most HIV strains, which helps explain why PGT 128 is so broadly neutralizing," said Katie J. Doores, a research associate in the Burton lab who was one of the report's lead authors. (medindia.net)
  • mechanism
  • Direct cell-cell transfer is an efficient mechanism of viral dissemination within an infected host, and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can exploit this mode of spread. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these results suggest a direct virucidal mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by papuamide A. We also demonstrate here that the other papuamides (B-D) are able to inhibit viral entry indicating that the free amino moiety of 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid residue is not required for the virucidal activity. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we describe the mechanism of VCC formation and its role in immune evasion mechanisms of HIV-1. (nih.gov)
  • Human Immun
  • External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. (harvard.edu)
  • The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) r. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Te. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston believe they have uncovered the Achilles heel in the armor of the virus that continues to kill millions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Non-macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelopes" by Paul J. Peters, W. Matthew Sullivan et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • The structure of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some of its components have been difficult to study in three-dimensions (3D) primarily because of their intrinsic structural variability. (tmc.edu)
  • Peptides
  • Env-A244 peptides derived by CAT D, K, and L cleavage induce IFN-γ from HIV-1 Env-specific CD4+ T-cells.CAT D, K, and L digests of Env-A244 were incubated with Env-specific CD4+ T-cell lines generated from six RV144 phase III trial volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the safety of HIV-1 gp120 C4-V3 hybrid polyvalent peptide immunogen (C4-V3 peptides) formulated in mineral oil containing mannose mono-oleate (IFA) in HIV-1 uninfected volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • inhibition
  • Lattice engineering enables definition of molecular features allowing for potent small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 entry. (harvard.edu)
  • This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. (nih.gov)
  • Confirmation of protein expression/activity was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and a TZM-bl HIV inhibition assay. (springer.com)
  • In summary, these findings support inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation as a promising target for management of disabling persistent HIV-SN pain syndromes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • potent
  • The team's analysis hints that PGT 128 may be extraordinarily potent because it also binds two separate gp120 molecules, thus tying up not one but two cell-infecting structures. (medindia.net)
  • vitro
  • With the isolation and purification of HIV-1, it was shown that whole virions and crude extracts therefrom could induce in vitro some of the immunologic phenomena that were observed in clinical disease. (springer.com)
  • Bosze S, Caccamo N, Majer Z, Mezo G, Dieli F, Hudecz F: In vitro T-cell immunogenicity of oligopeptides derived from the region 92-110 of the 16-kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (exbio.cz)
  • p110delta(-/-) B cells proliferate poorly in response to B cell receptor (BCR) or CD40 signals in vitro, fail to activate protein kinase B, and are prone to apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Papuamide A is representative of a class of marine derived cyclic depsipeptides, reported to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • immune
  • PRIMARY: To examine the safety and potential improvement in immune responses elicited by combining rsgp120/HIV-1MN with the adjuvant QS-21. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It has been hypothesized that HIV-specific immune responses are responsible for the period of relative quiescence of viral replication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse. (nih.gov)
  • Also, active immunization has the potential to induce primary immunity in the fetus and to boost both T-cell and humoral immune responses to HIV in the mothers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The immune system in some people can cope with HIV after all. (bio-medicine.org)
  • University of Michigan researchers say that a new technique for vaccinating against a variety of infectious diseases - using an oil-based emulsion placed in the nose, rather than needles - has produced a strong immune response against smallpox and HIV in two sets of experiments. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Our study suggests that HIV-1 capture by CD169 can provide virus evasion from both innate (phagocytosis) and adaptive immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • primary isolates
  • The lack of macrophage tropism for the majority of the envelopes amplified from lymph node, blood, and semen is striking and contrasts with the current consensus that R5 primary isolates are generally macrophage tropic. (umassmed.edu)
  • surface plasmon r
  • Surface plasmon resonance showed papuamide A did not interact with sCD4 and gp120. (nih.gov)
  • Successful biotinylation of papuamide A without a significant loss of activity was achieved (data not shown) and the biotinylated papuamide A was utilized to quantify binding of sCD4 or gp120 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). (nih.gov)
  • Biotinylated CVN mutant recognition with gp120 was characterized using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). (springer.com)
  • immunogenicity
  • PRIMARY: To compare the immunogenicity and safety of each of several HIV-1 derived immunogens versus control in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 counts greater than or equal to 500 cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cells
  • Site-specific glycopeptide analysis of transmitted/founder 1086.C gp120 expressed in CHO cells revealed the presence of phosphorylated glycans, while 293T cell-produced 1086.C gp120 glycans were not phosphorylated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. (curehunter.com)
  • Sudhir Paul, Ph.D., pathology professor in the UT Medical School, said, "Unlike the changeable regions of its envelope, HIV needs at least one region that must remain constant to attach to cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If this region changes, HIV cannot infect cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers at the University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) report that the practice of mindfulness meditation can halt the decline of CD4-T cells in HIV-positive patients. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Processes being investigated include protein aggregation in cells, conformational dynamics of enzymes, formation of skeletal tissues, cell penetration by viruses, DNA recognition by proteins, and protein folding. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) can capture HIV-1 via the receptor CD169/Siglec-1 that binds to the ganglioside, GM3, in the virus particle membrane. (nih.gov)
  • E) Cells were challenged with HIV-1, washed and cell-associated p24gag was measured. (nih.gov)
  • structural
  • The full-length V3-CTB presenting the complete V3 in a structural context mimicking gp120 was recognized by the large majority of our panel of 24 mAbs. (umassmed.edu)
  • Structural and biochemical studies of proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Microscopy
  • Super-resolution microscopy reveals specific recruitment of HIV-1 envelope proteins to viral assembly sites dependent on the envelope C-terminal tail. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy revealed close association of CD169 and HIV-1 particles in surface-accessible but deep plasma membrane invaginations. (nih.gov)
  • scaffold
  • Anticalins are engineered binding proteins based on the beta-barrel scaffold of the lipocalin family. (tum.de)
  • phenotype
  • Pulliam L, Sun B, Rempel H. Invasive chronic inflammatory monocyte phenotype in subjects with high HIV-1 viral load. (ucsf.edu)
  • virus's
  • Before recent HIV X-rays illuminated the virus's instruments of invasion, researchers had to find--and assemble--those pieces in the dark. (the-scientist.com)
  • Amino Acids
  • The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered 421-433 on gp120, is now under study as a target for therapeutic intervention. (bio-medicine.org)
  • neurons
  • Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. (thescipub.com)
  • Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. (thescipub.com)
  • induce
  • AS PER AMENDMENT 07/02/97: To determine the ability of immunization with rsgp120/HV-1MN in combination with QS21 with or without alum to induce an HIV-1 envelope-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in volunteers who undergo rsgp120/MN skin testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • humoral
  • Immunizing mice with HIV CN54 gp120 fused to IgG Fc (gp120-Fc), but not gp120, elicited Env-specific humoral responses in the absence of adjuvant, suggesting that the Fc sequence acted as an adjuvant ( 7 ). (asm.org)