Loading...
  • ASSAY
  • Reduction of the HIV seroconversion window period and false positive rate by using ADVIA Centaur HIV antigen/antibody combo assay. (curehunter.com)
  • Instead, as indicated by a fate-of-capsid assay, CsA released the HIV-1 CA core from an apparent state of hyperstabilization, in a cell type-specific manner. (umassmed.edu)
  • The current HIV diagnostic algorithm consists of a repeatedly reactive immunoassay (IA), followed by a supplemental test, such as the Western blot (WB) or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens were screened with a fourth-generation IA (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay [Architect], Abbott Diagnostics) from July 2011 through February 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • From July 2011 through February 2012, 10 specimens with repeatedly reactive Architect results were tested with both a WB and a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay (Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test [Multispot], Bio-Rad Laboratories), and from March 2012 through February 2013, only with a Multispot (27 specimens). (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens negative by either WB or Multispot were tested for HIV-1 RNA (m2000 RealTime HIV-1 Quantitative Assay, Abbott Diagnostics). (cdc.gov)
  • Positive p24 antigen assay, including neutralisation in antigen only assays on two separate specimens (one of which may include the initial screen on Ag/Ab assay) in the absence of a diagnostic western blot. (health.gov.au)
  • Detection of HIV nucleic acid as proviral DNA using a qualitative NAT assay (currently this assay is not registered on the ARTG). (health.gov.au)
  • Humans
  • Sera of HIV- humans showed reactivity against four defined regions, two in p17, one in p24, and one in p15. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • replication
  • Dynamic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and the macrophage govern the tempo of viral dissemination and replication in its human host. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, enrichment of proteins linked to chromatin assembly or disassembly, DNA packaging, and nucleosome assembly were identified that paralleled virus-induced cytopathology and replication. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: The human peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Cyclophilin A (CypA) binds HIV-1 capsid (CA) and influences early steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. (umassmed.edu)
  • The data also support the hypothesis that a cell-type specific CypA-dependent restriction factor blocks HIV-1 replication by delaying CA core uncoating and hindering nuclear entry. (umassmed.edu)
  • We have previously reported the case of an HIV-infected patient in whom viral replication remained absent despite discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy after transplantation with CCR5Δ32/Δ32 stem cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 5 ⇓ - 7 Thus, maintenance of replication-competent HIV in long-lived cells and distinct anatomical sanctuaries allows the virus to reseed the body once ART is discontinued. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4 + T cells, and macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cocaine's potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages remain poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • epitopes
  • p24CE DNA priming followed by p55gag DNA boost provided a novel strategy to increase the magnitude and breadth of the cellular immune responses to HIV-1 Gag, including the induction of strong, multifunctional T-cell responses targeting epitopes within CE. (nih.gov)
  • sequences
  • The majority of sera from HIV-1+ individuals showed strong reactivities to the cross-reactive regions and to various other peptide sequences, a sequential epitope recognized by all HIV-1+ sera could, however, not be identified. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We analysed gag p24 and RT-pol sequences which were generated from samples spanning over 21-years with advanced phylogenetic techniques.We also estimated the origin of each of the identified transmission clusters with the oldest cluster dating back, on average, 30 years and the youngest dating back roughly 20 years.This information can be used to produce targeted interventions to decrease transmission of HIV in Africa. (nih.gov)
  • We analysed gag p24 and RT-pol sequences which were generated from samples spanning over 21-years with advanced phylogenetic techniques. (nih.gov)
  • gag p24 transmission clusters of Capetonian sequences.On the right hand side are the two individual gag clusters with their estimated time of origin. (nih.gov)
  • On the left hand side is a big Bayesian time resolved phylogenetic tree with 193 gag p24 Capetonian sequences with the two monophyletic clades that were identified in the PhyloType analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Coding sequences from the FMDV VPl protein and the core protein, p24, from a clade C HIV-1 isolate from Zambia were cloned into the new vector and infective RNAs were generated for each construct to inoculate N. benthamiana plants. (unl.edu)
  • These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation of the HIV LTR may change the binding characteristics between LTR sequences and cellular proteins, thereby suppressing HIV LTR transcription and modulating viral expression. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • METHODS
  • It is possible, with the use of phylogenetic methods, to uncover transmission events of HIV amongst local communities in order to identify factors that may contribute to the sustained transmission of the virus. (nih.gov)
  • Methods Stored samples in samples already identified as p24-positive using standard-of-care fourth-generation assays were randomly selected alongside groups of antibody-positive samples and HIV-negative samples. (bmj.com)
  • Effective methods for detection of HIV-related laboratory markers are critical for both accurate HIV screening and for monitoring patients for disease progression and viral resistance to therapy. (thebodypro.com)
  • This chapter provides an overview of currently available HIV laboratory screening methods, viral load assays, and HIV resistance tests. (thebodypro.com)
  • Genetic
  • Disruption of CypA binding to CA, either by genetic means or by the competitive inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), reduces the efficiency of HIV-1 transduction in some cells but not in others. (umassmed.edu)
  • AIDS
  • Despite recent breakthroughs in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic within South Africa, the transmission of the virus continues at alarmingly high rates. (nih.gov)
  • This information has previously been presented at the British HIV Association Spring Conference, 21-24 April 2015, Brighton, UK and at the European AIDS Clinical Society Conference, 21-24 October, Barcelona, Spain in poster format. (bmj.com)
  • Contrary to the normal healthy human cells that love oxygen, in which the body is suffering from a disease that causes viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, including HIV/AIDS, cancer, arthritis and microbial cells all are almost anaerobic (live without oxygen/air) Or in other words, these microbes cannot live in oxygen. (breastcanceryogablog.com)
  • Dissociation between HIV antigen/antibody tests and HIV NAT assays can occur in seroconverters (HIV NAT positive/antibody negative) or late stage AIDS (HIV NAT positive/antibody negative), as discussed further below in section 3 . (health.gov.au)
  • Medical communities have developed medications to interfere in HIV growth and delay its progression into AIDS. (lifemartini.com)
  • When CD4 counts fall below 200 cells, HIV patient is known to be progressing towards AIDS. (lifemartini.com)
  • Instead, viral tests enable one to detect viral particles directly either by detecting its antigen (present on viral surface) or by detecting the actual viral copies present to predict the progression of HIV to AIDS . (lifemartini.com)
  • The viral load testing is a reliable indicator of prognosis of HIV and AIDS in an infected individual. (lifemartini.com)
  • The problem is that all illness including cancer, AIDS and the autoimmune diseases have an increase in retroviral expression so how can we tell if HIV is a transmitted retrovirus when all our own retroviruses come out when we are ill? (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • HIV-positive women who are breastfeeding should not be given vitamin A supplements because it increases the risk of transmitting the AIDS virus to their infants, researchers said Thursday. (com.es)
  • Bee Venom Destroys HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) 1971 ESP Photo of HIV/AIDS. (pearltrees.com)
  • Dr. JAMA Study Confirms: Micronutrients Can Help Prevent the Development of AIDS in HIV-Infected People. (pearltrees.com)
  • In 2012, about 34 million people worldwide were living with HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus linked to AIDS. (pearltrees.com)
  • 259_role_of_micronutrients_in_the_control_of_hiv_and_aids.pdf. (pearltrees.com)
  • cellular
  • HIV entry into CD4 + cells requires interaction with a cellular receptor, generally either CCR5 or CXCR4. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (tabers.com)
  • 4. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said bioreactive pair is selected from the group of ligand-receptor pairs consisting of lectins and lectin binding sites, HDL and HDL receptor cellular receptor site, hormones and hormone receptor sites, antibiotics and ribosomal proteins. (google.com)
  • HIV normally invades the body through two cellular receptors. (pearltrees.com)
  • acute
  • 9 Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) with CCR5Δ32/Δ32 donor cells (CCR5Δ32/Δ32 SCT) in an HIV-infected patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and documented absent viremia during the first 20 months of remission, during which time the patient did not receive ART. (bloodjournal.org)
  • cells
  • B lymphocytes from immunized animals also presented p24 antigen to the specific T cells. (qmu.ac.uk)
  • Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • No correlation was observed between the cell type-specific effects on infectivity and the steady-state CypA protein levels in these cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4 + T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The major barrier to viral eradication in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the establishment of HIV reservoirs, including low-level productively and latently infected cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • ABBR: BTA A protein released into the urine by malignant cells in the bladder, studied as a possible marker of cancer of the urinary bladder. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: CA A protein or carbohydrate that is either expressed by cancerous cells but not by healthy cells or is expressed by cancerous cells in much greater concentrations than by healthy cells. (tabers.com)
  • Tuberculosis results in activation of T cells and macrophages that may harbor latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). (naver.com)
  • HIV infects lymphocytes, particularly CD4 positive cells of the body. (lifemartini.com)
  • Therefore, by measuring CD4 positive cells and getting CD4 ratio with respect to CD 8 cells (unaffected cells), doctors can provide analysis of HIV progression and the effectiveness of HIV therapy for patients under treatment. (lifemartini.com)
  • Nanoparticles carrying a toxin found in bee venom can destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while leaving the surrounding cells unharmed. (pearltrees.com)
  • They specifically extracted cells that produced no complete HIV viral particles spontaneously but which readily produced HIV when given immune stimulants. (pearltrees.com)
  • Now, a team from the Scripps Research Institute and other institutions says it has identified a new way to prevent HIV from infecting cells, using an approach that resembles gene therapy or transfer. (pearltrees.com)
  • Humoral
  • HIV-1 conserved elements p24CE DNA vaccine induces humoral immune responses with broad epitope recognition in macaques. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 p55gag DNA vaccination did not prime de novo CE humoral responses but increased pre-existing CE-specific responses. (nih.gov)
  • Animals developed a strong and specific humoral response to the p24-His after the first booster and immune sera was able to recognize the native p24 from a different clade expressed on the surface of the HIV-1 chronically infected HUT78/ARV T-cell line. (unl.edu)
  • Importantly
  • Importantly, the recombinant p24-His proved its efficiency by confirming the serology of 117 samples previously tested by two rapid HIV-1 tests, thus representing an excellent alternative for production of highly specific diagnostic reagents for HIV endemic regions in the developing world. (unl.edu)
  • Importantly, our results show that inhibition of p38 MAPK/MSK1 signaling by specific pharmacological inhibitors abrogated the positive effect of cocaine on HIV-1 transcription. (frontiersin.org)
  • Macrophages
  • Here, we report the identification of cocaine-induced signaling events that lead to enhanced HIV-1 transcription in macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine enhanced HIV-1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner in infected THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1macs) and primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (frontiersin.org)
  • antiretroviral
  • The worrisome components of your story include not only that you had unprotected receptive vaginal sex with a partner who was HIV infected, but also that since he did not test until several days after your tryst we can assume he was not on antiretroviral therapy. (thebody.com)
  • Mother-to-child transmission of HIV has been largely controlled in the United States and other developed countries through the use of antiretroviral drugs, but is a major problem in the developing world. (com.es)
  • The takeaway is that daily supplementation of HIV-infected pregnant or lactating women with vitamin A and beta-carotene at the doses tested is probably not safe and efforts need to be strengthened on preventing mother-to-child transmission through other interventions, such as antiretroviral agents," Villamor said in a statement. (com.es)
  • purification
  • While yields obtained for the VPl-His protein after purification were similar to those in crude extracts obtained with the previous TMV-VPl vector, p24-His yields were 10-15 times higher than those of VPl-His. (unl.edu)
  • serum samples
  • CHIV accurately determined the reactive results for the HIV-confirmed serum samples from known HIV patients and Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) panels. (curehunter.com)
  • The values of these reactivities were elevated especially in serum samples of HIV- individuals showing cross-reaction with gag proteins on Western blot. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • vaccines
  • This may have implications for the induction of specific immune responses to pathogens after administration of single protein vaccines. (qmu.ac.uk)
  • Plants have already been used to produce many types of vaccine molecules, but a consistent problem has been achieving adequate levels of protein expression in order to make them viable as bioreactors for vaccines. (scienceblog.com)
  • The results have important implications for the economic viability of using plants as bioreactors to produce vaccines against HIV and other diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • human
  • RESULTS: Here we investigated the mechanism by which CypA regulates HIV-1 transduction efficiency using 27 different human cell lines, 32 HeLa subclones, and several previously characterized HIV-1 CA mutants. (umassmed.edu)
  • Obregon and her colleagues in Dr Julian Ma's laboratory are working with the p24 core protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (scienceblog.com)
  • Obregon and her colleagues have found a way to significantly boost HIV-1 p24 protein production in plants by producing an entirely new molecule - a fusion of the HIV-1 p24 protein and part of another protein, human immunoglobulin A (IgA) - a major component of the immune system. (scienceblog.com)
  • Influence of tuberculosis on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1): enhanced cytokine expression and elevated beta 2-microglobulin in HIV-1-associated tuberculosis. (naver.com)
  • Bee Venom Destroys Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) - Waking Times Media. (pearltrees.com)
  • antigens
  • Remune has been reported to increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens in patients with high CD4 cell counts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, patients with moderately advanced HIV disease who have already received 52 weeks of either HAART or HAART plus IL-2 are vaccinated with Remune and a control recall immunogen, tetanus toxoid (TT), to evaluate whether these patients can develop new CD4 T-cell and CD8 T-cell responses to HIV-related antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (tabers.com)
  • Prevention
  • While male condoms are highly effective against HIV transmission, they are often inadequate prevention options for women as male partners may refuse their use [ 4 - 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The development of women-initiated HIV prevention options therefore remains a critical public health objective. (omicsonline.org)
  • particle
  • Person with HIV symptoms, but negative HIV antibody test, should necessarily have this test to confirm and cross check the presence of virus particle inside the blood. (lifemartini.com)
  • 2. A composition of matter according to claim 1 wherein said article is a core particle having a diameter of less than about 1000 nanometers. (google.com)
  • immune responses
  • Remune consists of an inactivated, gp120-depleted virus intended to stimulate HIV-specific immune responses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To target immune responses towards invariable regions of the virus, we engineered DNA-based immunogens encoding conserved elements (CE) of HIV-1 p24gag. (nih.gov)
  • membrane
  • During viral assembly, the proteins form membrane associations and self-associations that ultimately result in budding of an immature virion from the infected cell. (creative-diagnostics.com)
  • 4‐4‐20 anti‐fluorescyl IgG Fab′ recognition of membrane bound hapten: Direct evidence for the role of protein and interfacial structure. (currentprotocols.com)
  • transcription
  • Disruption of CypA binding to wild-type CA, or to any of the mutant CAs, caused a decrease in HIV-1 reverse transcription in all the cell lines analyzed here. (umassmed.edu)
  • CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that, while CypA promotes reverse transcription under all conditions tested here, its effect on HIV-1 infectivity correlates more closely with effects on nuclear entry of the viral cDNA. (umassmed.edu)
  • De Iaco, Alberto and Luban, Jeremy, "Cyclophilin A promotes HIV-1 reverse transcription but its effect on transduction correlates best with its effect on nuclear entry of viral cDNA" (2014). (umassmed.edu)
  • Toward decoding the underlying mechanism, results presented in this report demonstrate that cocaine induces the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a known activator of HIV-1 transcription. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also present data suggesting that the p38 MAPK-driven HIV-1 transcription is dependent on the induction of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). (frontiersin.org)
  • particles
  • A biologically active composition made up of core particles or surfaces which are coated with a layer which is designed to allow attachment of biochemically reactive pairs (BRP's) without denaturing the BRP to the microparticles. (google.com)