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  • isolates
  • Reduced baseline sensitivity to Maraviroc inhibition among R5 HIV-1 isolates from individuals with severe immunodeficiency. (lu.se)
  • sooty mangabey
  • Each of these viruses is thought to have arisen as a result of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) being introduced into the human population, although the origin for HIV-2 was the sooty mangabey (SIVsm), while for HIV-1, it was the chimpanzee (SIVcpz). (news-medical.net)
  • The evolutionary history of the simian immunodeficiency virus sooty mangabey /HIV-2 lineage was reconstructed by using available database sequences with known sampling dates, and a timescale for this history was calculated by using maximum likelihood methods. (pnas.org)
  • singly
  • In the present study we have further examined the function of the humoral immune response and studied the potentiating effect of complement (C') on antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2. (lu.se)
  • virologic and immunologic
  • Continued virologic and immunologic studies of HIV-2 over the past three decades have continued to support the attenuated phenotype or unique 'elite control', which remains of interest in our quest to better understand the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1, identify correlates of protective immunity and develop appropriate interventions . (lww.com)
  • diagnosis
  • The clinical management of HIV-2 infected patients should now include early diagnosis and treatment initiation as per international guidelines. (ovid.com)
  • cobas ® HIV-1/HIV-2 offers flexible testing features (plasma, serum, dried blood spots for early infant diagnosis), highest throughput and absolute automation with ready-to-use reagents. (roche.com)
  • survival
  • To compare survival of patients infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. (nih.gov)
  • Survival analysis methods were used and the death rate ratios for HIV-2 relative to HIV-1 patients were estimated using proportional hazard regression models that allowed for age, sex and clinical or immunological features. (nih.gov)
  • In the new international context of early and universal ART initiation, the aim was to review survival patterns among HIV-2 infected patients, either on ART or not. (ovid.com)
  • subtype
  • In this study we date the introduction of HIV-2 into the human population and estimate the epidemic history of HIV-2 subtype A in Guinea-Bissau, the putative geographic origin of HIV-2. (pnas.org)
  • In addition we used coalescent theory to estimate the past population dynamics of HIV-2 subtype A in a rural population of Guinea-Bissau. (pnas.org)
  • Our estimates of the epidemic history of HIV-2 subtype A in Guinea-Bissau show a transition from constant size to rapid exponential growth around 1955-1970. (pnas.org)
  • retroviruses
  • Though HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both retroviruses that can have similar effects on the human body, they are genetically distinct. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Each donated unit of blood must be tested for infectious diseases including hepatitis, HIV and other retroviruses. (webwire.com)
  • Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. (mdpi.com)
  • infections
  • Analysis carried out with purified IgG indicated that the C' effect was largely exerted through the classical C' pathway involving IgG in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. (lu.se)
  • cobas ® HIV-1/HIV-2 Qualitative Test for use on the cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems is the first automated nucleic acid test to enable differentiation between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, applying the clinically proven dual target design (gag and LTR) for HIV-1. (roche.com)
  • These included 19 HIV-1 and 29 HIV-2 seroincident cases tested at a median of less than 2 years after seroconversion as well as seroprevalent cases with single (9 HIV-1 cases and 31 HIV-2 cases) or dual (n = 14) infections. (nih.gov)
  • test
  • The genetic differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 mean that if a person takes a test for HIV-1, it may not detect HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the case of specimens that test negative for HIV-2 antibody but might have indeterminate HIV-1 antibody present, a Western blot can be used to confirm the presence of HIV-1 antibody. (news-medical.net)
  • Just to clarify, the sero time for HIV 2 is the same as HIV 1, so any test taken 3 months and after is conclusive. (healthboards.com)
  • Thanks Apollo, But I cannot get a convincing information reg seroconvertion time for hiv-2 and when i spoke to Focus diagnostics who ran the hiv 2 dna/rna pcr the lower limit of detection is 500 copies and I am worried that hiv2 replicates slowly and may be it is not showing up on antibody testa and PCR test. (healthboards.com)
  • Would an hiv-1 ab screen(nyc) test for hiv-2? (thebody.com)
  • Here, we investigate the epidemic history of HIV-2 to test previously suggested hypotheses of its origin. (pnas.org)
  • She worries that the HIV 2 test was only done once (4 years after the rape). (thebody.com)
  • Abbott Park, Illinois ( NYSE: ABT ) Abbott announced today it received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its ABBOTT PRISM HIV O Plus test, the first fully automated blood screening test for HIV-1/HIV-2. (webwire.com)
  • I had a 3 month and a 11 month HIV-1/HIV-2 AB screen test and both came back non-reactive. (thebody.com)
  • What does non reactive mean and how accurate are these test i taken cause both were done proffesionally at a hospital but am geeting rashes on my face and on my body that look like hiv rashes and been having diaherra.PLEASE ILL DONATE just let me know where and please awnser cause i have a fiance and dont want to give it to her. (thebody.com)
  • gp36
  • The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. (mdpi.com)
  • Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. (mdpi.com)
  • enzyme
  • Any samples that are submitted for HIV diagnostic testing should be screened using an enzyme immunoassay that is able to detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and any laboratory performing this screening should include algorithms for differentiating between the two viruses in repeatedly reactive samples. (news-medical.net)
  • In HIV-infected patients the enzyme is subjected to intensive mutagenesis and mutants resistant to applied medicines are produced as a result of the selection pressure. (creativebiomart.net)
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 IWB reactivity occurred independent of HIV-1 and HIV-2 false-positive testing for antibody by enzyme immunoassay (EIA-Ab) and no cross-reactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2 IWB patterns were detected. (ajtmh.org)
  • patients
  • HIV-2-infected patients survive longer than HIV-1-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • Longitudinal follow-up of 175 HIV-1- and 294 HIV-2-infected patients identified in, or referred to a hospital in The Gambia. (nih.gov)
  • Reactivity
  • IWB reactivity in HIV-1 and HIV-2 seronegative individuals may not be viral in origin and the occurrence of IWB pattern may vary among populations. (ajtmh.org)
  • virus
  • HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two main types of this virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Globally, HIV-1 is the most prevalent type of HIV and is generally the virus that people are talking about if they mention HIV without specifying a type. (news-medical.net)
  • Now the tests you have taken will more than likely include HIV2, but then you or your doctor would need to check on that, but even so, HIV is the same virus more or less and most tests would pick HIV 1-2 even if they were only HIV. (healthboards.com)
  • A useful strategy for investigating the epidemic history of HIV combines molecular clock analysis, to estimate the timescale of the epidemic, and coalescent theory, to infer the demographic history of the virus ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1. A virus isolate HIV-2 D205 (ECACC V 87122304), which prefers cells which are derived from myeloidic cells for in vitro replication. (epo.org)
  • HIV-2 is a less aggressive virus than HIV-1 and very few treatment studies have been done. (thebody.com)
  • Interaction between the viral protein Rev and the RNA motifs known as Rev response elements (RREs) is required for transport of unspliced and partially spliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during the later stages of virus replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • HIV-2 is more related to the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of monkeys then to HIV-1. (madsci.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. (lu.se)
  • article{ff4f8a23-6ca4-4f67-9971-6842888c6b56, abstract = {Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. (lu.se)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 2 (HIV-2) encodes Vpx that degrades SAMHD1, a cellular restriction factor active in non-dividing cells. (nih.gov)
  • We characterized the replicative defect of HIV-2 in MDDCs by comparing the ability of wild-type and VSV-G-pseudotyped virus to bind cells, undergo fusion and perform reverse transcription. (nih.gov)
  • The intriguing differences in the natural course, transmissibility, and epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 are still insufficiently explained. (nih.gov)
  • sequences
  • A collection of 33 SIV/HIV-2 sequences with known isolation dates was retrieved from the HIV database ( http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/index ). (pnas.org)
  • ELISA
  • Hi Apollo, I spoke to one of the doctors from my country where hiv2 is prevalent who mentioned that i need to get western blot even though elisa is negative as elisa is enagtive and western blot will be positive for type 2. (healthboards.com)
  • MDDCs were exposed to the indicated doses of HIV-2 GL-AN, pseudotyped or not with VSV-G. After 2 h at 4°C, cells were extensively washed and the amount of cell-associated p27 was assessed by ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • To measure viral binding at the cell surface, we incubated MDDCs with increasing doses of GL-AN and GL-AN (VSV) (50 and 150 ng p27 mL−1) for 2 h at 4°C. After extensive washes, p27 Gag levels were measured in cell lysates by ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • Serum
  • HIV-1 Western Blot WB Serum / Plasma Donor Supplemental Bio-Rad Laboratories Redmond, WA US License 1109 11/13/1998 Flu oro gnost HIV-1 IFA IFA Plasma / Serum Donor Supplemental Waldheim Pharmazeutika GmbH Vienna, Austria US License. (thebody.com)
  • people
  • Because HIV-2 is transmitted in the same ways as HIV-1, people who have HIV-2 should follow the same precautions as people who have HIV-1. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • With effective treatment, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the HIV awareness charity Avert , around 95 percent of people living with HIV have HIV-1. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • HIV-2 is harder for people to transmit than HIV-1. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate between the two viruses when testing people who are at risk of having HIV-2. (news-medical.net)
  • Are there any estimates on how many people r infected with hiv-2(us and outside)? (thebody.com)
  • Some 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year in the United States, the agency said, citing statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (medicinenet.com)
  • Of the more than 1 million people living with HIV in the United States, about 20 percent haven't been diagnosed, the FDA added. (medicinenet.com)
  • Further research needs to explore the 'what to start' question and document specific causes of death in people living with HIV-2 and enrolled in care in Africa. (ovid.com)
  • Globally
  • HIV-1 group M has subsequently spread globally, generating the pandemic observed today. (pnas.org)
  • type
  • HIV-1 is the most common type of HIV and occurs all over the world. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Due to it being type 2, what are your thoughts on starting early treatment? (thebody.com)
  • Results showed that addition of C' increased intra-type antiviral activity of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 plasma, although the C' effect was more pronounced with HIV-2 than HIV-1 plasma. (lu.se)
  • patterns
  • Our analysis provides evidence for a zoonotic transfer of HIV-2 during the first half of the 20th century and an epidemic initiation in Guinea-Bissau that coincides with the independence war (1963-1974), suggesting that war-related changes in sociocultural patterns had a major impact on the HIV-2 epidemic. (pnas.org)
  • lower
  • However, heterosexual transmission rates of HIV-2 are five to 10 times lower than those of HIV-1. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Between mothers and babies, transmission rates of HIV-2 are 20-30 times lower than those of HIV-1. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biological reasons have been invoked to explain the difference in global epidemiology between HIV-1 and HIV-2, such as lower HIV-2 viral loads that correlate with a lower transmissibility ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • structures
  • In this communication, the secondary structures of the HIV-2 RRE and two RNA folding precursors have been identified using the SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) chemical probing methodology together with a novel mathematical approach for determining the secondary structures of RNA conformers present in a mixture. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • suggests
  • Our analysis collectively suggests that the HIV-2 RRE undergoes two conformational transitions before assuming the energetically most favorable conformer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • tests
  • This means that not all tests and treatments work for both types of HIV. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • HIV is not a real concern, its so very very rare but more so modern tests would pick it up within 3 months anyway, so you dont have HIV 1 or 2. (healthboards.com)
  • Hello,Not surprisingly, you've already had numerous tests for HIV-2 . (thebody.com)
  • No additional tests for HIV-1 or -2 are necessary or warranted. (thebody.com)
  • Non-reactive means negative.Your non-reactive (negative) HIV-1- and HIV-2-antibody tests out to 11 months are definitive and conclusive. (thebody.com)