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  • Aids
  • Despite the drop in new infections, black women are still at a high risk for HIV, the virus that causes Aids. (medhelp.org)
  • Luo and Perelson's research was supported by the National Institute of Health through a grant to the Duke Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID). (lanl.gov)
  • Blick G et al (2007) The probable source of both the primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 strain found in a patient with rapid progression to AIDS and a second recombinant MDR strain found in a chronically HIV-1-infected patient. (springer.com)
  • AIDS research has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus, the central problem being the absence of a practical host species in which HIV-1 replicates efficiently ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, HIV-2 can suppress the immune system and lead to the development of AIDS, in which case a person develops the same symptoms and infections that are seen with HIV-1. (news-medical.net)
  • An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), has discovered a crucial missing link in the search for the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for human AIDS. (rxpgnews.com)
  • If you had asked me 6 years ago about using gene therapy to fight HIV/AIDS, I would have given you a nice rant about how expensive it is, how non-viable it is in the places that need anti-HIV strategies the most, how dangerous it can be, and I would have been damn offended you even considered it. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test (OraQuick) is a screening test for HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS. (fda.gov)
  • For more information about HIV counseling, see CDC's HIV/AIDS webpage. (fda.gov)
  • gp120
  • Engineering Anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs. (pnas.org)
  • The wells of the polystyrene microplate strips are coated with recombinant HIV antigens (gp41, gp120, and gp-36) expressed in E.coli. (mpbio.com)
  • HIV-1 gp120 is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, containing HIV-1 gp120 N-terminus immunodominant regions, 30-110 amino acids. (prospecbio.com)
  • HIV-1 gp120 although stable at 4°C for 1 week, should be stored below -18°C. (prospecbio.com)
  • HIV-1 gp120 antigen is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for early detection of HIV seroconvertors with minimal specificity problems. (prospecbio.com)
  • From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity to inhibition by CCR5 ligands and cellular tropism. (nih.gov)
  • strains
  • Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 strains are capable of high levels of replication in vitro in pig-tailed macaque ( Macaca nemestrina ) lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • or bnAbs that have the greatest potency, requiring the smallest concentration to neutralize resistant strains of HIV-1 ( 5 - 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. (nih.gov)
  • We show that envelope glycoproteins (gp120s) from different HIV-1 strains exhibit divergent binding levels to CCR5 on cell lines and primary cells, but not to CD4 or the CD4i monoclonal antibody E51. (nih.gov)
  • viruses
  • existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. (pnas.org)
  • The divergence between human and simian viruses necessitates a 2-stage process for evaluation of candidate vaccines in macaques, with proof of concept-challenge studies using SIV followed by immunogenicity studies using the corresponding HIV-1 immunogens, which often cannot be directly evaluated for indications of efficacy before human trials. (pnas.org)
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are closely related, but distinct viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • Each of these viruses is thought to have arisen as a result of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) being introduced into the human population, although the origin for HIV-2 was the sooty mangabey (SIVsm), while for HIV-1, it was the chimpanzee (SIVcpz). (news-medical.net)
  • The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate between the two viruses when testing people who are at risk of having HIV-2. (news-medical.net)
  • An HIV-1 infected person can make as many as 10,000,000,000 virus particles each day, so 10 10 /10 4 = one million viruses will be produced each day with resistance to one drug. (virology.ws)
  • binds
  • On episode #314 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent travels to Albert Einstein College of Medicine where he speaks with Kartik, Ganjam, and Margaret about their work on Ebolavirus entry, a tumor suppressor that binds the HIV-1 integrase, and the entry of togaviruses and flaviviruses into cells. (virology.ws)
  • acute
  • Castor D et al (2012) Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic relationships among acute and early HIV-1-infected individuals in New York City. (springer.com)
  • drug resistance
  • Barth RE et al (2012) Accumulation of drug resistance and loss of therapeutic options precede commonly used criteria for treatment failure in HIV-1 subtype-C-infected patients. (springer.com)
  • Bennett DE et al (2009) Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update. (springer.com)
  • Boden D et al (1999) HIV-1 drug resistance in newly infected individuals. (springer.com)
  • Burchell AN et al (2012) Increase in transmitted HIV drug resistance among persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing in Ontario, Canada, 2002-09. (springer.com)
  • individuals
  • However, the increase in CD4+ cell count as a response to ART is greater among individuals infected with HIV-1 than among those infected with HIV-2. (news-medical.net)
  • The risk of being infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is substantially enhanced in individuals with other sexually transmitted diseases. (virology.ws)
  • Whether the experimental strategy actually worked to treat the individuals HIV-1, I dont know. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Immunoreactive with all sera of HIV-1 and HIV-type O infected individuals and with 60-80% of HIV-2 infected individuals. (prospecbio.com)
  • sensitivity
  • Does anyone know of an HIV-1 DNA test panel that can be used to establish sensitivity/specificity of a set of pcr reagents. (bio.net)
  • proteins
  • By virtue of its particular capsid and Vif protein sequences, HIV-1 avoids and antagonizes the human forms of TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins. (pnas.org)
  • On episode #232 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent meets up with Roberto, Reuben, Lou, and Leslie at the University of Minnesota to talk about their work on HIV-1, APOBEC proteins, measles virus, and teaching virology to undergraduates. (virology.ws)
  • West Africa
  • HIV-2 is mainly present in West Africa, but it is slowly starting to appear in other regions, including the United States, Europe, and India. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cases of HIV-2 have been reported in France, Portugal, and in countries with colonial links to these nations as a result of immigration from and commercial ties to West Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • latency
  • Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • virus
  • Collins JA et al (2004) Competitive fitness of nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the development of animal models that use HIV-1 as the challenge virus would undoubtedly facilitate the evaluation of candidate prevention and treatment strategies. (pnas.org)
  • There are two main types of this virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Globally, HIV-1 is the most prevalent type of HIV and is generally the virus that people are talking about if they mention HIV without specifying a type. (news-medical.net)
  • According to UAB post-doctoral researcher Brandon Keele, Ph.D., lead author of the report, this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (rxpgnews.com)
  • this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The p2b domain of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag and the p6 domain of HIV-1 Gag contain late assembly (L) domains that engage the ESCRT membrane fission machinery and are essential for virus release. (pnas.org)
  • antigens
  • The conjugate is based on a second set of recombinant HIV antigens expressing the same epitopes as the pre-coated antigens, which is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. (mpbio.com)
  • test
  • I saw on a previous thread that thai testing procedures are quite up-to-date and that recently thailand was praised for its hiv stratagy generally, so I am assuming that the test was third or fourth gen. (medhelp.org)
  • I also read however that there is minimal incidence of hiv 2 in thailand and therefore it is not mandatory to test for it, thats what had me worried. (medhelp.org)
  • In the case of specimens that test negative for HIV-2 antibody but might have indeterminate HIV-1 antibody present, a Western blot can be used to confirm the presence of HIV-1 antibody. (news-medical.net)
  • What is the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test and how is it performed? (fda.gov)
  • As with all HIV screening tests, a reactive test result needs to be confirmed by an additional, more specific test. (fda.gov)
  • False Negatives - a small number of people who are infected with HIV-1 will have negative test results. (fda.gov)
  • The product labeling for this test will be available soon on the list of FDA Licensed / Approved HIV, HTLV and Hepatitis Tests on the FDA web site. (nih.gov)
  • Atripla
  • Triple therapy formulations such as Atripla have been used successfully to treat infections with HIV-1, and presumably there will be mixtures of three antiviral drugs for treating hepatitis C. (virology.ws)
  • I am wondering about the interaction of citrus and HIV medications specifically Atripla. (drugs.com)
  • India
  • From Ref [1] - a 1995 paper: 'In India alone, 30,000 to 50,000 people may die of rabies per year. (bio.net)
  • patients
  • On episode #278 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy discuss disruption of the ccr5 gene in lymphocytes of patients infected with HIV-1. (virology.ws)
  • genetic
  • However, they have shortcomings, mostly because of the large genetic distance between SIVs and HIV-1. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the genetic differences, a healthcare provider may prescribe different drug combinations for treating HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • cells
  • Although most cells infected with HIV are rapidly eliminated in vi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells express the HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CCR5, but not CXCR4, and can therefore be infected with CCR5-tropic* but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1. (virology.ws)
  • CCR5
  • CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, even if gp120s can bind both CCR5 monomers and oligomers, impairment of CCR5 oligomerization improved viral entry, suggesting that HIV-1 prefers monomers for entry. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, our results support a role for CCR5 heterogeneity in diversifying the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 isolates and provide new clues for development of CCR5-targeting drugs. (nih.gov)
  • differences
  • Additionally, differences between HIV-1 and SIV enzymes preclude preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of some drugs, such as non-nucleoside RT inhibitors that are inactive against SIVs. (pnas.org)
  • In this article, we explore the differences and similarities between HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)