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  • rats
  • rat hindlimb unloading and reloading models were used in this experiment to study the adaption of bone system to normal loadbearing condition after a period of unloading transduction in muscle, and mechanical signal transduction in countermeasures to muscle atrophy in rats subjected to hindlimb suspension unloading. (ayevanity.com)
  • Rats were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 8, each): hindlimb unloading (HU), HU + vibration (HUV), and cage-control (CON). (frontiersin.org)
  • Muscles
  • Two of the studies involve muscle cultures to explore growth factors and tensioninduced skeletal muscle growth and the effects of The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression changes of MyoD mRNA under reloading rat skeletal muscles after hindlimb suspension. (ayevanity.com)
  • The first two specific aims are designed to evaluate the organization and characteristics of output from primary motor cortex (M1) to hindlimb muscles using spike triggered averaging (SpTA) of electromyography (EMG) recordings. (ku.edu)
  • Aim one is to determine whether postspike effects can be detected in averages of EMG activity of distal and proximal hindlimb muscles. (ku.edu)
  • Aim four is to evaluate the organization and characteristics of output from the ipsilateral M1 to hindlimb muscles using StTA of EMG activity. (ku.edu)
  • In this aim, we will document the properties of poststimulus effects in hindlimb muscles from ipsilateral cortex compared to those from the contralateral cortex. (ku.edu)
  • Three-hundred-seventy-one neurons in the hindlimb representation of M1 were isolated and tested with spike triggered averaging of EMG activity from twenty-two hindlimb muscles including hip, knee, ankle, digit and intrinsic foot muscles. (ku.edu)
  • Prior to the innervation of hindlimb muscles at stage 26, ventral root discharge was barely detectable despite the presence of large ventral root potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • survival
  • Conclusions Apelin has beneficial effects on the therapeutic efficacy and survival maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells in hindlimb ischaemia and might constitute an important therapy target in cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • cell
  • This was done by isolating single neurons in the hindlimb representation of M1 and generating averages of EMG segments associated with the individual action potentials (spikes) of each cell. (ku.edu)
  • Time
  • Fig. 5 shows the hindlimb measurements for wild-type and animals at both time points. (nih.gov)
  • activity
  • Following hindlimb muscle innervation, each cycle of activity was initiated by a brief, intense discharge that coincided with the rising phase of the ventral root potential. (jneurosci.org)