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  • metastases
  • There are various patterns of prevalence of genetic mutations in the genomes of primary breast tumour and its metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between the tumor and its microenvironment was part of Stephen Paget's 1889 "seed and soil" theory, in which he postulated that metastases of a particular type of cancer ("the seed") often metastasizes to certain sites ("the soil") based on the similarity of the original and secondary tumor sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placing a given tumor into one of categories depends on well-defined histological features: size, lymphovascular invasion, mitotic counts, Ki-67 labelling index, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of metastases and whether they produce hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • Aside from the great heterogeneity seen in lung cancers (especially those occurring among tobacco smokers), the considerable variability in diagnostic and sampling techniques used in medical practice, the high relative proportion of individuals with suspected GCCL who do not undergo complete surgical resection, and the near-universal lack of complete sectioning and pathological examination of resected tumor specimens prevent high levels of quantitative accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains the concept of tumour heterogeneity and the order of genetic events during tumor evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer is consensually considered genetically and clinically as a heterogeneous disease, in that it reflects the heterogeneity of the normal breast tissue at its origin17873350. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment contributes to tumour heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole tumor
  • While FA can be diagnosed via biopsy, bronchial brushings, and immunocytochemistry, examination of the whole tumor is required to rule out biphasic pulmonary blastoma, a mixed tumor of higher aggressiveness, wherein FA occurs admixed with primitive blastoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using increments of 5% to describe the amount of each subtype present, the predominant subtype is used to classify the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1 , GATA5 , and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. (hindawi.com)
  • Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent molecular studies have shown several candidate genes important in hereditary prostate cancer ( 1 , 2 ), but few specific molecular markers for this tumor have as yet been found. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mucinous
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Note nuclear labeling of adenocarcinoma cells, normal crypt cells, and lymphocytes in lamina propria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • INTRODUCTION Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are heterogeneous ex vivo-expanded T lymphocytes with mixed T-NK phenotype and endowed with a wide MHC-unrestricted antitumor activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • early onset
  • Part of these discrepancies can be attributed to the different age-limits proposed for the definition of early onset (or "juvenile") tumors, which have been set at age 40, 45, or 50 depending on the authors and purposes of the studies [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • aggressiveness
  • A noninvasive prediction of tumor aggressiveness can be achieved using T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and spectroscopy. (medscape.com)
  • tissues
  • Other presenting symptoms described have included: flu-like syndrome with cough and fever, FA is an epithelial tumor whose cells and architecture resemble that of fetal lung tissues in the pseudoglandular stage of development (which occurs at about 10-16 weeks gestation in the human), with complex glandular structures and morules with cell nuclei that appear clear due to the accumulation of biotin. (wikipedia.org)
  • p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in primary lung adenocarcinomas: heterogeneous expression in tumor tissues and correlation with p53 expression and proliferative activities. (oup.com)
  • Hypomethylation of DMR0 was detected in breast (33%) and colorectal (80%) tumour tissues with a higher frequency than LOI indicating that methylation levels are a better indicator of cancer than LOI. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The primary tumor instead established a microenvironment that is functionally analogous to that of certain normal tissues, such as the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph node
  • In 1960, Klein and colleagues found that in mice, primary methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas exhibited an antitumor immune response mediated by lymph node cells to cancer cells derived from the primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In such cases, these biphasic tumors are classified as a form of pulmonary blastoma because the presence of the blastomatous cells dramatically worsens the prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also observed heterogeneous expression of p21 in lung adenocarcinomas, i.e. in about two-thirds of the tumors, the tumor cells in the peripheral regions were p21 positive more frequently than were those in the central regions. (oup.com)
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of cancer cells, the released exosomes exhibit proteins and RNA associated with the tumor and can be used as surrogates to define tumor type and stage and to predict therapeutic responses. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • First, rather than isolate CTCs based on any one of their heterogeneous properties, 4,16 we instead remove the large fraction of cells that are non-cancer cells. (rsc.org)
  • Recently, a subpopulation of tumor cells has been identified in HNSCC based on the overexpression of the cellular marker CD44 and increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase. (frontiersin.org)
  • As the number of mutations accumulates, cells ultimately become immortalized, where each cell is capable of initiating tumor growth (Figure 1A ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The CSC theory is based on our understanding of embryological development and stem cell-derived organogenesis, where a few specific cells are capable of asymmetric division leading to the generation of diverse progenitor cells responsible for the creation of complex and heterogeneous organs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, the CSC theory explains that there exists a hierarchy of cells, where CSC are capable of unregulated asymmetric division, which is responsible for self-renewal and generation of a diverse population of differentiated progenitor cells that ultimately make up a heterogeneous tumor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as feasible and effective adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of immunomarkers in the rhabdoid cells, however, have often been noted to be weaker and more diffuse than those in the more differentiated tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells form secondary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of discrete genetic events have to occur in order to enable individual tumor cells that have the capacity to grow at an ectopic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a lack of oxygen can cause glycolytic behavior in cells, tumor cells also undergo aerobic glycolysis, in which they preferentially produce lactate from glucose even given abundant oxygen, called the Warburg effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal
  • [ 3 , 4 ] while the normal peripheral zone is mainly composed of homogeneous acinar and ductal elements containing secretions and is subdivided by several thin stromal septa that peripherally merge with the prostatic capsule. (medscape.com)
  • 53% of the tumors had homologous stromal elements and 47% displayed heterologous stromal elements. (worldwidescience.org)
  • benign
  • Approximately 80% of tumors arising from this gland are benign, 1 of which pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common histology. (omjournal.org)
  • situ
  • The overall operation of our platform, which we have coined the circulating tumor cell fluorescence in situ hybridization (CaTCh FISH) Chip, can be broken into three steps. (rsc.org)
  • genetically
  • Most clinical trials using genetically modified tumor vaccines have shown immunological responses (DTH), but few clinical responses. (jove.com)
  • Certain chemotherapeutic agents may enhance the immune effects of genetically modified tumor vaccines. (jove.com)
  • subset
  • 19 The Amsterdam criteria (AC) were updated at the 1998 group meeting, acknowledging the significance of a subset of extracolonic tumors (ie, endometrium, small bowel, ureter, and renal pelvis). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • occur
  • More intense p21 expression tended to occur in the more highly differentiated areas. (oup.com)
  • cellular
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, the stimulation of expression from the MMTV-LTR (Mouse mammary tumor virus-Long terminal repeat) was done by multiple rounds of pregnancy and lactation to evaluate the relevance of a cellular proto-oncogene, c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • Spiral CT is highly capable of demonstrating the presence of renal anatomical variations and concomitant tumoral pathology as shown in this case. (eurorad.org)
  • cell
  • These results suggest that p21 is involved in tumor cell differentiation and the physiological mechanism that protects against tumor extension. (oup.com)
  • Adenocarcinoma can also be distinguished by staining for TTF-1, a cell marker for adenocarcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horseshoe kidney is often associated with transitional cell tumour and there is a predisposition to hypertension and chronic kidney failure because of abnormal vascularisation. (eurorad.org)
  • However, disorders or defects of these mechanisms in a cell can lead to tumor development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • metastatic
  • New strategies are urgently required to deliver therapeutic genes to sites deep within primary and metastatic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanoma
  • This is reinforced by findings of decreased NK-cell activity among relatives of patients diagnosed with familial melanoma ( 11 ), implicating NK cells in tumor surveillance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. (mdpi.com)
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppressor
  • Tumor suppressor genes are often disabled by cancer-promoting genetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • Following systemic injection into mice bearing subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate tumors, cotransduced macrophages migrated into hypoxic tumor areas, upregulated E1A protein, and released multiple copies of adenovirus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The severe systemic inflammatory reaction and impaired peripheral circulation in this patient was attributed to excessive immunological effect induced by nivolumab resulting in cytokine release syndrome (CRS). (springer.com)
  • efficacy
  • An array of viral, synthetic, and cell-based vectors have been developed to transport such therapeutic gene constructs from the bloodstream into tumors but most have shown poor practical efficacy ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach. (frontiersin.org)
  • Poorly
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma will not resemble the normal glands (high grade) and will be detected by seeing that they stain positive for mucin (which the glands produce). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most FA's are well or moderately differentiated tumors, although high-grade, poorly differentiated variants have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffuse
  • Testicular, epidiymis and spermatic cord enlargement, diffuse ± heterogeneous reduced echogenicity (oedema), absent/decreased flow cf contralateral side. (radnotes.co.nz)
  • particles
  • The peripheral location of adenocarcinoma in the lungs may be due to the use of filters in cigarettes which prevent the larger particles from entering the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since most mature RNA is exported from the nucleus relatively quickly, most RBPs in the nucleus exist as complexes of protein and pre-mRNA called heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particles (hnRNPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • In particular, splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to CSC-DC vaccine produced significantly higher amount of IFNγ and GM-CSF than splenocytes isolated from the host subjected to unsorted tumor cell lysate pulsed-DC vaccine. (jove.com)
  • symptoms
  • Patients with giant prolactinomas typically present with highly elevated prolactin levels, endocrinologic disturbances, and neurologic symptoms from mass-induced pressure. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the size and invasiveness of the tumor, the patient had resolution of his clinical symptoms, dramatic reduction of his hyperprolactinemia, and near-complete disappearance of his tumor following medical treatment. (stanford.edu)
  • liver
  • Intravenous injection is considerably less efficient, as most virus fails to penetrate the tumor and is ultimately sequestered by the liver ( 6, 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • antigen
  • We demonstrate for the first time the ability of an active immunotherapy strategy to generate antigen-specific cytotoxicity in brain tumor patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Initially, we showed that human macrophages adenovirally infected with a HIF-regulated reporter or a therapeutic gene and then cocultured with human tumor spheroids in vitro , migrated into the hypoxic centre of these structures and expressed the exogenous gene ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)