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  • Polystyrene
  • Pulse Radiolysis Studies on the Mechanism of the High Sensitivity of Chloromethylated Polystyrene as an Election Negative Resist Lithography 25(1) 287 (1984) Y. Tabata, S. Tagawa, M. Washio. (patentgenius.com)
  • Experimental
  • Due to its high mutation rate and systematic elimination of key immune system cells, HIV is a very difficult virus for which to make a vaccine.In some trials, groups given experimental HIV vaccines have actually had higher incidence of HIV infection than groups given a placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Arc-discharge technique uses higher temperatures (above 1,700 °C) for CNT synthesis which typically causes the expansion of CNTs with fewer structural defects in comparison with other methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction thermal plasma method can produce up to 2 grams of nanotube material per minute, which is higher than the arc discharge or the laser ablation methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on how fragile the protein is and how stable the cells are, one could, for instance, use one of the following methods: i) repeated freezing and thawing, ii) sonication, iii) homogenization by high pressure (French press), iv) homogenization by grinding (bead mill), and v) permeabilization by detergents (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods incorporating chromatography generally begin with cryodepleted plasma undergoing buffer exchange via either diafiltration or buffer exchange chromatography, to prepare the plasma for following ion exchange chromatography steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • grape
  • Often associated with consumer products made from cranberries, grape seeds or red wine, proanthocyanidins were once proposed as factors inhibiting urinary tract infections in women, but this research has been refuted by expert scientific committees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds
  • These organic compounds exhibit good photostability, high absorption coefficients in the region from 400 nm to 450 nm (visible range), large Stokes shifts that minimize the effects of background fluorescence, and appreciable changes in spectral shift upon ligand binding [ 14 - 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • temperature
  • In laser ablation, a pulsed laser vaporizes a graphite target in a high-temperature reactor while an inert gas is bled into the chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method is similar to arc discharge in that both use ionized gas to reach the high temperature necessary to vaporize carbon-containing substances and the metal catalysts necessary for the ensuing nanotube growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its lower melting point makes it useful for lower temperature reactions, and its higher boiling point allows procedures under reflux at higher temperatures (relative to THF). (wikipedia.org)
  • selectivity
  • The sensor also exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward Zn 2+ over other common metal ions in the physiological pH range with a detection limit of 1.8 μM. (mdpi.com)
  • Consequently, the exploitation of chemosensors with high selectivity and sensitivity for detecting trace amounts of Zn 2+ has attracted increased research interest. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the development of new small molecular fluorescent sensors with extremely high sensitivity for Zn 2+ and high selectivity over other relevant metal ions remains desirable. (mdpi.com)
  • To achieve the requirement of high selectivity toward Zn 2+ , a strong chelator bearing three nitrogen atoms was incorporated into the porphyrin. (mdpi.com)
  • 13) The organic oxidant 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) can accomplish many of the same transformations that iodine(III) reagents can, sometimes with higher selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preparation
  • Examples include the preparation of commercial products such as enzymes (e.g. lactase), nutritional proteins (e.g. soy protein isolate), and certain biopharmaceuticals (e.g. insulin). (wikipedia.org)
  • These preparation procedures aim to remove contaminants that may interfere with detection of biomarkers, solubilize the proteins so they are able to undergo 2D Electrophoresis analysis, and prepare plasma with minimal loss of low concentration proteins, but optimal removal of high abundance proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • c) detecting in a quantitative or qualitative fashion one or more amplified RNA or cDNA products or signals associated with a disease with or without comparison to RNA not associated with a disease, whereby a disease in a human is characterized or evaluated without performance of a biopsy or surgery. (google.com.au)
  • particle
  • For standard TLC, silica gel with a mean particle size of 10 - 14 µm is used compared to HPTLC where a smaller particle size is required. (silicycle.com)
  • When a vessel (typically a tube or bottle) containing a mixture of proteins or other particulate matter, such as bacterial cells, is rotated at high speeds, the inertia of each particle yields a force in the direction of the particles velocity that is proportional to its mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • Trapping of either product is possible with a suitable reagent, and this method is often employed in tandem with a second process. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Electrospray produces more multiply-charged ions than MALDI, allowing for measurement of high mass protein and better fragmentation for identification, while MALDI is fast and less likely to be affected by contaminants, buffers and additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is used to measure fragmentation spectra and identify proteins at high speed and accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumin is structurally stable due to its seventeen disulfide bonds and unique in that it has the highest water solubility and the lowest isoelectric point (pI) of the plasma proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cohn Process exploits differences in properties of the various plasma proteins, specifically, the high solubility and low pI of albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • Intermediates are used in different species to form particular substances, but, in humans, the main end-product protoporphyrin IX is combined with iron to form heme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other desirable properties of the gel forming agent are the absence of ionizing groups and, in a given solvent, low affinity for the substances to be separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with a sol-gel/nanoclay composite was prepared by the sol-gel technique involving the hydrolysis reaction of. (naver.com)
  • temperatures
  • At high temperatures, more of the triacetate 14 was formed, while at low temperatures, the reaction was sluggish. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this process, the carbon contained in the negative electrode sublimates because of the high-discharge temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • allows
  • Unfortunately, the extraordinarily high mutation rate of HIV allows it to evolve in order to evade both the human immune system and the effect of anti-viral drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • techniques
  • Techniques have been developed to produce carbon nanotubes in sizable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • The highest amounts of esculeoside A were found in the outer skin and wall (pericarp wall) of the tomato fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apples contain on average per serving about eight times the amount of proanthocyanidin found in wine, with some of the highest amounts found in the Red Delicious and Granny Smith varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • Their modernized albumin purification process consists of five steps: Starting material is plasma that has been pretreated by centrifugation, A round of gel filtration is run, ion exchange on DEAE Sepharose is run to bind the albumin to the column, Albumin is eluted with a sodium acetate buffer, and Final polishing with gel filtration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination
  • Sol-gel/nanoclay composite as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples. (naver.com)
  • efficiency
  • DOX-loaded micelles were of high encapsulation efficiency (88.09%), high drug-loading content (22.70%), appropriate mean diameter (100-120 nm), narrow size distribution, and negative zeta potential (-6.7 to -31.5 mV). (dovepress.com)
  • Type
  • Phenol oxidation with hypervalent iodine reagents leads to the formation of quinone-type products or iodonium ylides, depending on the structure of the phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • DI-ICR-FT-MS-based high-throughput deep metabotyping: a case study of the Caenorhabditis elegans-Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model. (naver.com)
  • mass
  • In particular supercritical fluid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has come to the fore. (chemtec.org)
  • These two types of instrument are preferable here because of their wide mass range, and in the case of FT-ICR, its high mass accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely used instrument for peptide mass analysis are the MALDI-TOF instruments as they permit the acquisition of peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) at high pace (1 PMF can be analyzed in approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • It is speculated that this stereoselectivity for product 12 is due to the directing influence of the acetate group attached to carbon 6, which migrates during the reaction to carbon 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the aldol reaction, the diastereoselectivity of the product is often dictated by the geometry of the enolate according to the Zimmerman-Traxler model. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) Phenolic oxidations may afford different products depending on both the reaction conditions and the structure of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • CRYSTEX 42: high-throughput system for simultaneous measurement of the soluble fraction, ethylene content and intrinsic viscosity in a fully automated process for up to 42 samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Vaccenyl and conjugated linoleyl (CLA) containing trans fats occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. (wikipedia.org)