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  • Analysis
  • The most widely used instrument for peptide mass analysis are the MALDI-TOF instruments as they permit the acquisition of peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) at high pace (1 PMF can be analyzed in approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature
  • In food production, liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties, e.g. they melt at a desirable temperature (30-40 °C). Partial hydrogenation of the unsaturated fat converts some of the cis double bonds into trans double bonds by an isomerization reaction with the catalyst used for the hydrogenation, which yields a trans fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • An attack can be set off by temperature changes, stress, dehydration, and high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • extraction
  • SH3 exhibited a relatively high extraction yield, the lowest levels of impurities, and was the most effective at reversing the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells among SH1-SH3, which taken together indicate that it may have potential as a candidate therapeutic agent for the preventive therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • mutation
  • One type of mutation is gene amplification or overexpression, i.e., where a specific chromosomal region (including the cancer gene) has undergone a relative increase in DNA copy number, such that more copies of the cancer gene are present, or where the level of expression of a gene is increased, such that a correspondingly higher amount of mRNA and protein is produced, causing deleterious effects. (google.com)
  • Due to its high mutation rate and systematic elimination of key immune system cells, HIV is a very difficult virus for which to make a vaccine.In some trials, groups given experimental HIV vaccines have actually had higher incidence of HIV infection than groups given a placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, the extraordinarily high mutation rate of HIV allows it to evolve in order to evade both the human immune system and the effect of anti-viral drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Depending on how fragile the protein is and how stable the cells are, one could, for instance, use one of the following methods: i) repeated freezing and thawing, ii) sonication, iii) homogenization by high pressure (French press), iv) homogenization by grinding (bead mill), and v) permeabilization by detergents (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • The net effect of "spinning" the sample in a centrifuge is that massive, small, and dense particles move outward faster than less massive particles or particles with more "drag" in the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • When suspensions of particles are "spun" in a centrifuge, a "pellet" may form at the bottom of the vessel that is enriched for the most massive particles with low drag in the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-compacted particles remain mostly in the liquid called "supernatant" and can be removed from the vessel thereby separating the supernatant from the pellet. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • The care of people with sickle-cell disease may include infection prevention with vaccination and antibiotics, high fluid intake, folic acid supplementation, and pain medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • mass
  • In 1987, Koichi Tanaka used the "ultra fine metal plus liquid matrix method" and ionized biomolecules the size of 34,472 Da protein carboxypeptidase-A. In 1968, Malcolm Dole reported the first use of electrospray ionization with mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrospray produces more multiply-charged ions than MALDI, allowing for measurement of high mass protein and better fragmentation for identification, while MALDI is fast and less likely to be affected by contaminants, buffers and additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two types of instrument are preferable here because of their wide mass range, and in the case of FT-ICR, its high mass accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatography can be described as a mass transfer process involving adsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various
  • Sickle-cell disease may lead to various acute and chronic complications, several of which have a high mortality rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • MLPA can successfully and easily determine the relative copy number of all exons within a gene simultaneously with high sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Cancer is a genetic disease of single cell origin caused by the accumulation of inherited and acquired mutations in specific cancer genes, which have normal cellular functions, but when mutated or present at abnormally high levels contribute to cancer. (google.com)
  • type
  • The mTNF-K90R showed an in vivo therapeutic window that was 13-fold higher than that of the wild-type TNF-α (wTNF-α). (aacrjournals.org)
  • force
  • The tendency of a given particle to move through the liquid because of this force is offset by the resistance the liquid exerts on the particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • The lipoprotein profiles showed large and small peaks, which corresponded to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively, whereas very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron (CM) were only marginally detected. (go.jp)
  • In high-density oligonucleotide SNP arrays, hundreds of thousands of probes are arrayed on a small chip, allowing for many SNPs to be interrogated simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Whereas Sabatier considered hydrogenation of only vapors, the German chemist Wilhelm Normann showed in 1901 that liquid oils could be hydrogenated, and patented the process in 1902. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Similar dosing is used to prevent disease in high-risk patients, such as those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or those with organ transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • Research efforts to synthesize zeolites with larger pore diameter, high structural stability and catalytic activity have not given the expected results yet. (wikipedia.org)