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  • obesity
  • By identifying these at-risk kids, doctors can monitor their body fat carefully and try to prevent adult obesity through changes in eating and exercise habits. (nemours.org)
  • Obesity has been considered a risk factor for worst clinical outcomes following cardiovascular procedures like these, however, emerging data suggest that higher BMI protects against adverse outcomes in many acute and chronic disease states. (eurekalert.org)
  • This prompted experts to reexamine assumptions about body fat and explore the counterintuitive phenomenon known as the "obesity paradox. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a second study published in the same issue, investigators examined the "obesity paradox" from another perspective by evaluating the effects of body composition as a function of lean mass index (LMI) and body fat (BF) on the correlation between increasing BMI and decreasing mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • They estimated BF and LMI in nearly 48,000 people with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 50% and examined the survival advantages of obesity across strata of these body compositions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Body composition plays a critical role in the obesity paradox," says senior investigator Carl Lavie, MD, FACC, FACP, FCCP, Medical Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Preventative Cardiology at the John Ochsner Heart & Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, the University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although the question is often framed in terms of "obesity," defined by BMI cutpoints, correlations between BMI and blood pressure have been observed even in very lean populations, including groups in Africa, 7,8 Asia, 9,10 and South America. (ahajournals.org)
  • Reducing men's testosterone levels decreased insulin sensitivity and increased body fat mass. 14 In one study, more than 50% of men undergoing long-term androgen deprivation therapy developed the metabolic syndrome, manifested in particular by increased abdominal obesity and elevated blood sugar. (lifeextension.com)
  • After reading about promising results in animal studies and preliminary research in humans, Dr. Syed set out to bring the approach to Ohio, which has some of the highest levels of obesity in the nation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Obesity is linked to higher health care costs than smoking or drinking, and plays a major role in disability at all ages. (rand.org)
  • Obesity is weight that endangers health because of its high body fat relative to lean body mass. (rand.org)
  • A good screener for obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI). (rand.org)
  • Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used simple measure that combines weight and height to classify obesity. (bmj.com)
  • Objectives of this study include identification of the impact of obesity on reducing serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, particularly in response to altered vitamin D 3 supplementation, and to elucidate the longitudinal impact of serum 25-OH vitamin D on body mass index. (biomedcentral.com)
  • if not fully satisfactory, at least as good as any other relative weight index as an indicator of relative obesity" The interest in an index that measures body fat came with increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carl Lavie has written that, "The B.M.I. tables are excellent for identifying obesity and body fat in large populations, but they are far less reliable for determining fatness in individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These exercise trends are contributing to the rising rates of chronic diseases including: obesity, heart disease, stroke and high cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal weight obesity is a condition of having normal body weight, but high body fat percentages with the same health risks of obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The obesity paradox is a medical hypothesis which holds that obesity (and high cholesterol, when the more global term reverse epidemiology is used) may, counterintuitively, be protective and associated with greater survival in certain groups of people, such as very elderly individuals or those with certain chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual's ideal body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity is usually the result of consuming more calories than the body needs and not expending that energy by doing exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, BMI does not account for the wide variation in body fat distribution, and may not correspond to the same degree of fatness or associated health risk in different individuals and populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of a 2007 review of the caloric restriction literature warned that "[i]t is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • yet the populations Neel studied had diabetes in such high frequencies that a genetic predisposition to develop diabetes seemed plausible. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a propensity to develop diabetes were an evolutionary adaptation, then diabetes would have been a disease of long standing in those populations currently experiencing a high frequency of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatness
  • Whiteman added 'It is well known that with increased adiposity (or fatness), in particular central adiposity (higher waist measurements), that there is an increased likelihood of developing diabetes and vascular disorders such as high blood pressure and stroke. (health24.com)
  • reproductive choices, energy balance, adult weight gain, body fatness, voluntary and involuntary physical activity, medical care, exposure to tobacco smoke and alcohol, and occupational exposures, including shift work" as well as "metabolic and physiologic processes that modify the body's internal environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative weight and body mass index (BMI) are nearly identical and are reasonable estimates of body fatness as measured by percentage body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • athletes
  • For example, look at the many athletes and weekend warriors that pack around a high percentage of lean body mass. (changingshape.com)
  • A Swede named Ahlborg developed a protocol in which athletes performed a bout of very strenuous exercise and then consumed a high-carbohydrate diet for a period of three days while training normally (1). (howtobefit.com)
  • Usually, athletes want to be especially glycogen-loaded for a big race, and the notion of carrying out a very strenuous exertion lasting longer than an hour just three days before a big competition (in order to stimulate high rates of glycogen synthesis) was troublesome. (howtobefit.com)
  • Bergstrom advised athletes to first engage in a rugged bout of strenuous exercise, then consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for three days (to really drive glycogen levels down), then undertake strenuous exercise again (just to make sure that muscle-glycogen levels were really low), and finally feast on carbohydrates for the seemingly magical period of three days, while training very lightly. (howtobefit.com)
  • In addition, the three initial days of high-fat, low-carb eating left athletes irritable and less than super-confident. (howtobefit.com)
  • Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, basketball and soccer players) have a high muscle to fat ratio and may have a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary protein intake for well-trained athletes should occur before, during and after physical activity as it is advantageous in gaining muscle mass and strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-exercise nutrition is an important factor in a nutrition plan for athletes as it pertains to the recovery of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • weight
  • BMI is a calculation that uses height and weight to estimate how much body fat someone has. (nemours.org)
  • So those with high BMI readings - and, probably, high levels of fat - are most likely to have weight problems when they are older. (nemours.org)
  • Weight is not the problem, body fat is. (changingshape.com)
  • As of right now, my weight is 170 pounds and I'm hovering right around 22% body fat. (constantcontact.com)
  • The association between measures of body mass and blood pressure has been extensively documented, usually with body mass index (kg/m 2 ) as the measure of relative weight. (ahajournals.org)
  • Changes of weight status (body mass index sd score), RBP4, molar RBP4/serum retinol (SR) ratio, insulin resistance index homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). (nih.gov)
  • Changes of RBP4 correlated significantly to changes of insulin (r = 0.29), HOMA index (r = 0.29), QUICKI (r = 0.22), and weight status (r = 0.31). (nih.gov)
  • 0.001) decrease of RBP4, RBP4/SR, blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA index and an increase in QUICKI in contrast to the 18 children without substantial weight loss. (nih.gov)
  • The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • B M I = mass kg height m 2 = mass lb height in 2 × 703 {\displaystyle \mathrm {BMI} ={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{kg}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{m}}^{2}}}={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{lb}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{in}}^{2}}}\times 703} BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinness, allowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • A frequent use of the BMI is to assess how much an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body weight is supported primarily by the buttocks in contact with the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1.1 kilograms per litre for the density of the "fat free mass", a theoretical tissue composed of 72% water (density = 0.993), 21% protein (density = 1.340) and 7% mineral (density = 3.000) by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there were no errors whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with heart failure, those with a body mass index between 30.0-34.9 had lower mortality than those with what would normally be considered an ideal weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some studies, low body weight has been associated with increased mortality, particularly in late middle-aged or elderly subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low body weight in the elderly can be caused by pathological conditions associated with aging and predisposing to higher mortality (such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or depression) or of the cachexia (wasting syndrome) and sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass, structure, and function). (wikipedia.org)
  • For in-person meetings, Weight Watchers encourages members to select a goal weight that results in a body mass index generally accepted as healthy (18 to 24.9), although a member may also establish a goal weight outside of that range after providing a doctor's note to that effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ghrelin and synthetic ghrelin mimetics (growth hormone secretagogues) increase body weight and fat mass by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, BMI does not account for whether the excess weight is fat or muscle, and is not a measure of body composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing body weight is also thought to be linked to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many other ways of reducing body fat including modifying diet or administrating diet pills, increasing energy expenditure, or surgically removing abdominal fat/surgical fitting of a gastric band in order to subside excess abdominal weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Because the BMI does not distinguish fat from bone and muscle mass, it can misclassify some people. (rand.org)
  • Short-term studies in humans report a loss of muscle mass and strength and reduced bone mineral density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special considerations are involved in the use of DXA to assess bone mass in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, comparing the bone mineral density of children to the reference data of adults (to calculate a T-score) will underestimate the BMD of children, because children have less bone mass than fully developed adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The study found that compared to lean and healthy men, blood levels of H2S were twice as low in men with metabolic syndrome and up to four times lower in patients with diabetes. (health24.com)
  • Excess aromatase activity decreases testosterone and increases estrogen levels, resulting in a host of deleterious body changes for men. (lifeextension.com)
  • In a report in the June 20 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, the authors note that previous research has shown that higher levels of vitamin D reduce the risk of developing colon and rectal cancer by about 50 percent, but the effect on outcomes wasn't known. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our data suggest that higher prediagnosis plasma levels of [vitamin D] after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer may significantly improve overall survival," the authors wrote. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Patients with the highest vitamin D levels tended to have lower body-mass index (BMI) indicating that they were leaner, and also were more physically active. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, after controlling for BMI and physical activity, as well as other prognostic factors, higher vitamin D levels were still independently associated with better survival rates. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of α-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • As more of the population moves to cities, population over-crowding, increased poverty, increased levels of crime, high-density traffic, low air quality and lack of parks, sidewalks and recreational sports facilities leads to a less active lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • with a positive correlation associated with age and number of cigarettes smoked, and a negative correlation (decreased levels of physical inactivity) associated with years of formal education, body mass index, and increasing socioeconomic status. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of masculinizing hormones: Known as hyperandrogenism, the most common signs are acne and hirsutism (male pattern of hair growth, such as on the chin or chest), but it may produce hypermenorrhea (heavy and prolonged menstrual periods), androgenic alopecia (increased hair thinning or diffuse hair loss), or other symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition where there are excessive levels of androgens in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • percentage body fat
  • This graph from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States charts the average body fat percentages of Americans from samples from 1999-2004: In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In females, mean percentage body fat ranged from 32.0% at age 8-11 years to 42.4% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratios
  • Age-adjusted slopes of BP on BMI were uniformly higher in men than women, with pooled slope ratios of 2.00 and 2.20 for systolic and diastolic BPs, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • people
  • Physical inactivity is increasing or high among many groups in the population including: young people, women, and the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a significantly higher mortality rate among people who regularly sit for prolonged periods, and the risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal people, who don't have so great a muscular mass, should stay into the fitness range in the table to be healthier. (wikipedia.org)
  • It however is less accurate in people such as body builders and pregnant women. (wikipedia.org)
  • It further postulates that normal to low body mass index or normal values of cholesterol may be detrimental and associated with higher mortality in asymptomatic people. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • It's hauling around too much body fat that's detrimental to your health and can lead to different cancers, increased cholesterol and blood pressure, and even diabetes. (changingshape.com)
  • If they did, millions of men could be protected against the scourge of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and cancer. (lifeextension.com)
  • patients
  • The BJH emergency department's previous success using Lean to reduce door-to-balloon time for STEMI heart attack patients indicated that Lean process improvement is hardwired into the department now, Williams says. (healthcanal.com)
  • The measurements of vitamin D in the patients' blood reflected both the amounts made by the body when exposed to sunlight and to all sources of the vitamin in their diets, said Ng. (bio-medicine.org)
  • lower
  • A common cross-legged position is with the lower part of both legs folded towards the body, crossing each other at the ankle or calf, with both ankles on the floor, sometimes with the feet tucked under the knees or thighs. (wikipedia.org)
  • older age, higher diet quality, and female sex were positive factors affecting the benefits realized from lower caloric intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the more famous of such studies linked a body mass index lower than 18 in women with increased mortality from noncancer, non−cardiovascular disease causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • No food is off-limits, but the plan assigns higher points values to foods higher in sugar or saturated fat, and lower points values to lean proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, their mean body fat percentage, 14%, is well within what's considered a healthy range. (wikipedia.org)
  • specify] However, it has been suggested that, while very accurately measuring minerals and lean soft tissue (LST), DXA may provide skewed results due to its method of indirectly calculating fat mass by subtracting it from the LST and/or body cell mass (BCM) that DXA actually measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • calories
  • Over the period of the study, vitamin D insufficiency was not subsequently correlated with greater BMI/body fat, although lean mice with high supplementation consumed greater calories with no apparent BMI increase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reduce" can be defined relative to the subject's previous intake before intentionally restricting calories, or relative to an average person of similar body type. (wikipedia.org)
  • minerals
  • The most effective way to secure the natural nutrients required by your body for optimum health and physiological performance is by eating your vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats, sugars and carbohydrates, which can be procured from fresh fruits and vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, sports drinks such as Gatorade and Powerade, are consumed during and after exercise because they effectively rehydrate the body by refueling the body with minerals and electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood pressure
  • Abstract Associations between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) have been consistently observed, but remain poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • If body fat is the operative characteristic, for example, then why should women, who have a higher percentage of body fat than men at any given BMI value, have a shallower slope of blood pressure with BMI? (ahajournals.org)
  • Historically, the term mitral valve prolapse syndrome has been applied to MVP associated with palpitations, atypical chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, low body mass index, and electrocardiogram abnormalities in the setting of anxiety, syncope, low blood pressure, and other signs suggestive of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • principles
  • By applying "Lean" principles, first developed by Japanese car manufacturers to maximize value to customers and reduce waste, the team worked to revamp the process and meet their goal, says Jennifer Williams, RN, MSN, emergency department clinical nurse specialist. (healthcanal.com)
  • risk
  • If a mother or a sister was diagnosed breast cancer, the risk of a hereditary BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation is about 2-fold higher than those women without a familial history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • The research team also showed that the amount of H2S in the blood was determined by the extent of fat deposition in the body, in particular the amount of central or tummy fat. (health24.com)
  • women
  • The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than that for men, due to the demands of childbearing and other hormonal functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Caffeine is chemically similar to adenosine, a type of sugar that helps in the regulation of important body processes, including the firing of neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)