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  • ependymomas
  • In 1990, McCormick published a large surgical series demonstrating excellent long-term outcomes for surgery of ependymomas and established a clinical grading system. (medscape.com)
  • prognosis
  • A growing body of epidemiologic and molecular research has identified an important role of genomic and epigenomic alterations in astrocytoma initiation, susceptibility, and prognosis. (jcancer.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with and without contrast, are helpful in the diagnosis, grading, and pathophysiological evaluation of astrocytomas. (medscape.com)
  • lethal
  • AREG was also designated to be a promising marker for several types of cancer however precious little data about AREG role in the most frequent and generally lethal human brain tumours - astrocytomas reported up to date. (jcancer.org)
  • tumour
  • The current criteria used to characterize clinically relevant types of astrocytoma are not entirely sufficient indicators and the application of new molecular markers is essential to improve tumour characterization and subtyping. (jcancer.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Their etiology remains largely unknown: so far, only exposure to high-dose therapeutic radiation has been firmly established as a risk factor, but other plausible causes include genetic syndromes, familial aggregation, and genetic polymorphisms ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intraoperative
  • Imaging has also taken on a larger role in the operating room, as many procedures are now performed with intraoperative image guidance based on high-resolution MRIs. (medscape.com)
  • normal
  • A normal angiographic pattern or a pattern consistent with an avascular mass that displaces normal vessels is usually observed with both low-grade and high-grade lesions. (medscape.com)
  • study
  • The aim of the study was to investigate how AREG changes at epigenetic and expression levels reflect on astrocytoma malignancy and patient outcome. (jcancer.org)