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  • glucuronic
  • We used comparative genomics to reconstruct d -galacturonic and d -glucuronic acid catabolic pathways and associated transcriptional regulons involving the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) family transporters that bind hexuronates in proteobacteria. (asm.org)
  • Hexuronic acids d -galacturonic ( d -GalA) and d -glucuronic acid ( d -GlcA) are commonly found in all three domains of life. (asm.org)
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan ) consists of an amino sugar ( N -acetylglucosamine or N -acetylgalactosamine ) along with a uronic sugar ( glucuronic acid or iduronic acid ) or galactose . (wikipedia.org)
  • d -glucuronic acid (GlcA) and l -iduronic acid (IdoA). (rupress.org)
  • Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκύς "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neonates are deficient in this conjugating system, making them particularly vulnerable to drugs such as chloramphenicol, which is inactivated by the addition of glucuronic acid, resulting in gray baby syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to exhaust the bodies supply of glucuronic acid by combining multiple drugs/substances whose metabolism and excretion are primarily or entirely dependent on glucuronidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol, morphine, paracetamol (acetaminophen), cyclooxygenase inhibitors (NSAIDs), endogenous steroids, and certain benzodiazepines are all capable of contributing to GCA depletion, with ethanol and acetaminophen being the most commonly implicated substances involved in cases of accidental overdoses which have been positively attributed to glucuronic acid depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased GCA activity results in a decrease of the concentration and metabolic half-life of glucuronic acid substrates, causing the plasma levels of glucuronidated drugs to fall below their therapeutic threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid, as well as the glucuronidated metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (ETG), act on toll-like receptor 4 to aggravate both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions as well as increasing the perceived severity of pain in patients with chronic pain conditions, via up-regulation of the production and release of endogenous inflammatory signaling molecules within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose[citation needed], because the body synthesizes UDP-glucuronic acid from glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, sufficient carbohydrate intake provides enough UDP-glucuronic acid for detoxication[citation needed], and foods rich in glucose are usually abundant in developed nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic acid
  • In its open form, it has an aldehyde group at C1 and a carboxylic acid group at C6. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Covalent binding of the aglycone portions of several carboxylic acid (ester) glucuronides is known to occur to nucleophilic sites on serum albumin via transacylation reactions, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • In the first study, varying concentrations of nisin (0, 100, 300, and 500 microg/ml) plus 3% citric acid, 5.0 mM EDTA, and 0.5% Tween 80 were incorporated into 0.5% calcium alginate films at a 20% level (wt/wt) and then applied to Salmonella TyphimuriumNAr-contaminated skin samples (log10 5.0) at a 1:2 weight ratio (film:skin). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The algino-cellulose conjugates were formed through citric acid crosslinking of cellulose and alginate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The alginate-citrate finishes were applied to cotton gauzes in various formulations containing citric acid, sodium hypophosphite, and polyethylene glycol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • acidic
  • 100,000), an acidic component usually consisting of hexuronic acid or pyruvate, a low charge density and electrophoretic mobility, and stability at pH 5 to 6 at 100°C. Group I capsules may protect against desiccation and may contribute to adherence in enteric disease-producing isolates of E. coli ( 17 , 27 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • sulfate
  • The HS polysaccharide is composed of alternating hexuronic acid and d -glucosamine units and is substituted with sulfate groups in various positions. (rupress.org)
  • HS-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) occupies a critical position in the succession of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of HS, catalysing the transfer of sulfate to the C2-position of selected hexuronic acid residues within the nascent HS chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • primates
  • have hypothesized that the mutation of the GULOP (pseudogene that produces L-gulonolactone oxidase) so that it stopped producing GULO may have been of benefit to early primates by increasing uric acid levels and enhancing fructose effects on weight gain and fat accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The alginate-citrate finishes were combined with the neutrophil elastase inhibitor, oleic acid, to demonstrate the ability of the algino-cellulose fibers to release the inhibitor and neutralize destructively high levels of neutrophil elastase found in nonhealing and burn wounds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • He found that the reducing agent had the empirical composition C 6 H 8 O 6 , and he called it provisionally hexuronic acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • source
  • This was the last of the compound from animal sources, but, later that year, Szent-Györgyi's group discovered that paprika pepper, a common spice in the Hungarian diet, is a rich source of hexuronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, folic acid may carry methyl, formyl, and methylene groups in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic
  • Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκύς "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neonates are deficient in this conjugating system, making them particularly vulnerable to drugs such as chloramphenicol, which is inactivated by the addition of glucuronic acid, resulting in gray baby syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to exhaust the bodies supply of glucuronic acid by combining multiple drugs/substances whose metabolism and excretion are primarily or entirely dependent on glucuronidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol, morphine, paracetamol (acetaminophen), cyclooxygenase inhibitors (NSAIDs), endogenous steroids, and certain benzodiazepines are all capable of contributing to GCA depletion, with ethanol and acetaminophen being the most commonly implicated substances involved in cases of accidental overdoses which have been positively attributed to glucuronic acid depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased GCA activity results in a decrease of the concentration and metabolic half-life of glucuronic acid substrates, causing the plasma levels of glucuronidated drugs to fall below their therapeutic threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronic acid, as well as the glucuronidated metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (ETG), act on toll-like receptor 4 to aggravate both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions as well as increasing the perceived severity of pain in patients with chronic pain conditions, via up-regulation of the production and release of endogenous inflammatory signaling molecules within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, glucuronolactone is hydrolyzed in the body (like butyrolactone) to glucuronic acid, which may be oxidized to glucaric acid, or isomerized to another hexuronic acid, so there is no reasonable toxicity mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free glucuronic acid (or its self-ester glucuronolactone) has less effect on detoxification than glucose[citation needed], because the body synthesizes UDP-glucuronic acid from glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, sufficient carbohydrate intake provides enough UDP-glucuronic acid for detoxication[citation needed], and foods rich in glucose are usually abundant in developed nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalysis
  • He discovered the C4 dicarboxylic acid catalysis that forms the basis of the Krebs cycle which was pioneering research on how food is converted into energy. (healthy.net)
  • enzymes
  • HS-O-sulfotransferase (Hs2st) occupies a critical position in the succession of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of HS, catalysing the transfer of sulfate to the C2-position of selected hexuronic acid residues within the nascent HS chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two enzymes are responsible for the hydroxylation of the proline and lysine amino acids in collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • Other oxidized forms of D-galactose are D-galactonic acid (carboxylic group at C1) and meso-galactaric acid (mucic acid) (carboxylic groups at C1 and C6). (wikipedia.org)