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  • oligosaccharides
  • This intracellular trafficking and location are required for the presentation of exogenous Ags with complex oligosaccharides, such as those that have to be processed in lysosomes to remove the terminal sugar(s) ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • genome
  • We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • Among sulfate-reducing bacteria, genome sequencing has shown that D. vulgaris has developed well-defined protective enzymatic oxygen-defense systems ( 5 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • phylum
  • The Fibrobacteres phylum belongs to cellulolytic bacteria was isolated, and their relative abundance in CB group showed no difference between CON and FCB treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathogenic
  • IMPORTANCE Mycoplasmas are pathogenic bacteria that cause serious chronic infections in production animals, resulting in considerable losses worldwide, as well as causing disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • uptake
  • The invention provides a rapid, quantitative assay to directly assess the impact of a diverse range of sugars upon the sugar-mediated uptake of corresponding sugar-conjugates into various cell types. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and(c) assessing uptake of said glycoconjugates into the cells,wherein sugar-mediated transport of the glycoconjugates into the cells is quantified relative to a corresponding conjugate lacking the attached sugars. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. (genome.jp)
  • genomes
  • These bacteria have extremely reduced genomes and are thought to have limited metabolic flexibility, even though they are highly successful persistent parasites in a diverse number of species. (asm.org)
  • metabolic
  • If we better understand the assembly line in the metabolic mill that processes all the different sugars, we will be in a better place to implement bioengineering strategies. (phys.org)
  • But some hexose carbons (six-carbon sugars) are preferentially channeled through glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that connects to biofuel production. (phys.org)
  • bacterial
  • In conclusion, dietary FCB decreased the abundance of bacterial communities, particularly the population of bacteria related to cellulolytic degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • Aristilde used an emerging biochemical approach, called metabolomics, to track different sugar carbon atoms inside the bacterial cells and learn why the cell factory does not efficiently convert all sugar carbons into biofuel. (phys.org)
  • enzyme
  • This plasmid codes for the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase which, along with alcohol dehydrogenase already present in the bacteria allow it to produce ethanol . (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • An effective pretreatment that increases enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield and reduces enzyme consumption is crucial for reducing ethanol production cost. (ubc.ca)
  • P=So{1-[1+(Ke(Eo-LoLF)/(Ke+(Eo-LoLF))kdt](-k2/(Kekd))}1.11 P = Product (sugar) concentration So = Initial substrate (carbohydrate) concentration Eo = Initial enzyme loading concentration Lo = Initial lignin concentration LF = Lignin factor kd = Enzyme deactivation constant Ke = Equilibrium constant k2 = Reaction rate constant Finally, an economic optimization of bioethanol production was conducted. (ubc.ca)
  • The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). (genome.jp)
  • concentrations
  • Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest because of their importance in cycling and transformation of essential nutrients and minerals ( 24 , 25 ) and of their links to different pathogenesis ( 26 , 27 ) in environments where extreme fluctuations in oxygen concentrations occur. (pnas.org)
  • occurs
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the sugar-mediated transport of the glyconjugate occurs at least three times faster than a corresponding conjugate lacking the attached sugars. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • novel
  • Characterization of novel marine oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the Pacific Ocean : description of Marinivirgula fluito gen. nov., sp. (oregonstate.edu)
  • substrate
  • Conditions that increase substrate hydrolysability while limiting sugar solubilisation allowed for a maximum total sugar yield of 81.7% (92.1% of total cellulose and 68.2% of total hemicellulose). (ubc.ca)
  • model, which predicts sugar concentration during enzymatic hydrolysis, was made by enabling the model to account for changes in substrate lignin content. (ubc.ca)
  • ethanol production
  • Ph.D. research conducted at Oregon State University , supervised by Elaine Ingham , obtained a sample of the genetically modified organism for assessing ecological effects through the German Institut für Biotechnologie and, testing it in non-sterile (ordinary) soil, found that the modified bacteria caused mass plant death from the ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • Metabolite labelling reveals hierarchies inthat selectively channel carbons from sugar mixtures towards biofuel precursors, Microbial Biotechnology (2016). (phys.org)
  • growth
  • Additionally, acetate may have a negative effect on bioleaching by inhibiting the growth of chemolithotrophic bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eating substances rich with these probiotics is a sort of home remedy for diarrhea, vaginitis, and yeast infections because it promotes the growth of these as opposed to other bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • organic
  • These bacteria are important in the natural conversion of organic carbons in soils and they are exploited for industrial biofuel production," Aristilde said. (phys.org)
  • involves
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)
  • group
  • 6. The recombinant solventogenic organism of claim 1, wherein the gene is selected from a gene involved in a pathway selected from the group consisting of solventogenesis, chemotaxis, spore formation and sugar transport. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 5 wherein the sugar-fluorophore is selected from the group consisting of aminofluoroscein, nitrobenzoxadiazole or dansyl chloride. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • plant
  • have speculated that without the independent test, the genetically modified bacteria might have been introduced in nature and then could have spread to contaminate the biosphere where it would cause worldwide plant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, we seek to understand the complexities of utilizing the different sugars we find in plant biomass. (phys.org)
  • production
  • Right now, though, this bacterium is not very efficient at processing complex wastes to biofuel production ," said Ludmilla Aristilde, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering. (phys.org)
  • different
  • So instead of having to separate the different sugars, we look to save time and money by using the whole complex biomass and turn it into fuel," she said. (phys.org)
  • natural
  • The bacteria can even survive very high levels of oxygen in their natural environment ( 28 , 29 ), but the mechanism remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • bacteria was a natural Ag that could bind CD1d and stimulate the TCR of i NKT cells ( 15 - 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • levels
  • The immune system exhibited temporary changes in cytokine levels and a lasting IgG response against commensal bacteria. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell
  • and(e) comparing sugar-mediated transport of said glycoconjugates between cells of the first line and the second cell line, wherein cell line selectivity for sugar-mediated transport of said glycoconjugates is indicated by elevated sugar transport activity in one of the cell lines relative to the other cell line. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 wherein the cell line selectivity for sugar-mediated transport of said glycoconjugates of one cell line is at least three times higher relative to the other cell line. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Among
  • Large-scale regulon inference using bioinformatics revealed remarkable variations in transcriptional regulators for L-Rha utilization genes among bacteria. (frontiersin.org)