• Unlike streams, however, metolachlor was seldom detected, probably because of its lower urban use and lower persistence in the environment compared to the other herbicides. (sourcewatch.org)
  • This is probably because these herbicides break down faster in the natural environment compared to atrazine. (sourcewatch.org)
  • As in streams, the most frequently found herbicides in shallow ground water in urban areas were atrazine, DEA, simazine, and prometon. (sourcewatch.org)
  • This family of herbicides affects grasses and dicots alike and includes these subtypes: sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), pyrimidinyl oxybenzoates (POBs), and sulfonylamino carbonyl triazolinones (SCTs). (toxipedia.org)
  • Herbicides, also referred to as weedkillers, are Pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. (toxipedia.org)
  • Fertilizers, Herbicides & Pesticides Fuel Cans Gas & Charcoal Barbecues. (accessgambia.com)
  • This is particularly important for new families of pesticides, like cyclohexanedione herbicides, because the scientific literature about their environmental behaviour and persistence in the environment is quite limited. (intechopen.com)
  • Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed, while non-selective herbicides (sometimes called "total weedkillers" in commercial products) can be used to clear waste ground, industrial and construction sites, railways and railway embankments as they kill all plant material with which they come into contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • A breakthrough occurred in the 1940s with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), a compound similar to plant hormones, which is a highly selective systemic herbicide when used in very small quantities. (infoplease.com)
  • Early chemical herbicides were inorganic compounds. (infoplease.com)
  • Organic herbicides began to be produced in earnest with dinitrophenol compounds in 1932. (infoplease.com)
  • As a result of questions concerning the possible health effects of the use of Agent Orange, heightened awareness of possible ecological and health dangers attributable to herbicides has resulted in reevaluation of many compounds and has called indiscriminate use into question. (infoplease.com)
  • One advantage of herbicides formulated as esters is that they are generally more efficacious than the equivalent salt formulation due to the higher solubility of nonpolar compounds in the waxes of the leaf surface, which in turn leads to increased uptake and hence phytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • However, the growing number of detections of herbicide residues in different environmental matrices [ 1 - 5 ] has increased public concern about the widespread use of these compounds. (intechopen.com)
  • Unlike streams, however, metolachlor was seldom detected, probably because of its lower urban use and lower persistence in the environment compared to the other herbicides. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Next-generation GMOs are designed to be resistant to combinations of herbicides. (mercola.com)
  • Do we need to view pictures of the victims of Agent Orange to be reminded of how toxic the ingredients in this herbicide are? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prior to the 1930s, herbicides were non-specific in what they killed and also very toxic to humans. (toxipedia.org)
  • In particular, the chemical degradation rate of the triazine and sulfonylurea herbicide families slows as the soil pH increases, particularly above pH 7.0. (psu.edu)
  • So in higher-pH soils, the triazine and sulfonylurea herbicides persist longer, and more is available for plant uptake. (psu.edu)
  • Some triazine and sulfonylurea herbicides do not persist and carry over, regardless of how high the soil pH is. (psu.edu)
  • Low pH also can affect the persistence of both the triazine and sulfonylurea herbicides. (psu.edu)
  • Historically, products such as common salt and other metal salts were used as herbicides, however these have gradually fallen out of favor and in some countries a number of these are banned due to their persistence in soil, and toxicity and groundwater contamination concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbicides such as ashes, common salts, and bittern have been used in agriculture since ancient times. (infoplease.com)
  • Potassium salts of Fatty Acids' as herbicides? (bio.net)
  • In this sense, to meet more stringent regulations, the agrochemical industry tends to develop herbicides with low environmental persistence, effectiveness at a low application rate and minimal non-target organism toxicity. (intechopen.com)
  • Post-emergent herbicides containing 2,4-D, MCPP, dicamba, triclopyr, MCPA and dithiopyr are applied in liquid form for spot treatment or granular form to cover the entire yard. (gardenguides.com)
  • Atrazine is thus said to have "carryover", a generally undesirable property for herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, soils high in clay, organic matter, or both have a greater potential for carryover because of increased binding of the herbicide to soil particles, with a corresponding decrease in leaching and loss through volatilization. (psu.edu)
  • Coarse- to medium-textured soils with a lower organic matter content (less than 3 percent), more typical of the soils common to Pennsylvania, are less likely to retain herbicides and to have carryover problems. (psu.edu)
  • Under the right circumstances, however, herbicide carryover can occur in any type of soil. (psu.edu)
  • In addition to testing and using the herbicides in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, the US military also tested the "Rainbow Herbicides" and many other chemical defoliants and herbicides in the US, Canada, Puerto Rico, Korea, India, and Thailand from the mid-1940s to the late 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The science consisted solely of toxicologic studies commissioned by the herbicide manufacturers in the 1980s and 1990s and never published, not an uncommon practice in U.S. pesticide regulation. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Soil pH can influence the persistence of some herbicides, especially the triazines and sulfonylureas (see Table 1). (psu.edu)
  • Consequently, new families of herbicides such as imidazolines, sulfonylureas or cyclohexanediones have appeared in the market in the last years. (intechopen.com)
  • The ACCases of grasses are sensitive to these herbicides, whereas the ACCases of dicot plants are not. (toxipedia.org)
  • Modern herbicides are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones which interfere with growth of the target plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin herbicide. (toxipedia.org)
  • In the case of soil-incorporated herbicides, vapor may facilitate the distribution through soil air spaces (Hance et al. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG, West CJ (1987a) Long-and short-term effects of vapor of the herbicide 2,4-D butyl on the growth of tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG (1988a) Effects of low concentrations of vapor of the phenoxyalkanoic herbicide 2,4-D butyl on growth of tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG (1990) Uptake by tomato plants of the herbicide [ 14 C] 2,4-D butyl in the vapor phase. (springer.com)
  • The site of CHD herbicides action is on acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a key early enzyme in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. (intechopen.com)
  • Herbicides Insecticide Spraying Hand Pumps Knapsack Sprayers. (accessgambia.com)
  • Chemical and microbial breakdown, two ways herbicides degrade in soil, often are slower in higher-pH soils. (psu.edu)
  • In addition, in higher-pH soils, lesser amounts of these herbicides are bound to soil particles, making more available for plant uptake. (psu.edu)
  • Pre-emergent herbicides are applied to the soil before the weed emerges to prevent germination or early growth of weed seeds. (toxipedia.org)
  • herbicides as well as farm and botanical seeds. (accessgambia.com)
  • Apply pre-emergent herbicides on Bermuda grass before greening. (gardenguides.com)
  • These volatile herbicides do not belong to one specific chemical type or category of use, but are often, although not exclusively, either an ester-based formulation or intended for soil incorporation. (springer.com)
  • a standard herbicide of commercial importance, wasdetermined by germination of cucumber and wheat seeds'for four days at a temperature of 76F. (google.com)
  • A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective. (infoplease.com)
  • Integrated pest management may use herbicides alongside other pest control methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-emergent weed-control herbicides may be used two to three times per year. (gardenguides.com)
  • The result is that the same degree of weed control can be achieved with a smaller amount of ester-based herbicide than is possible with the salt. (springer.com)
  • Factors affecting herbicide drift, including nozzle selection, spraying pressure, wind speed and direction, and the use of drift retardants. (umn.edu)
  • Breeze VG, Timms LD (1986) Some effects of low doses of the phenoxyalkanoic herbicide mecoprop on the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its relation to spray drift damage. (springer.com)
  • Their classification by mechanism of action (MOA) indicates the first enzyme, protein, or biochemical step that the herbicide affects in the plant. (toxipedia.org)
  • Anything that affects the disappearance or breakdown of herbicides affects persistance. (psu.edu)