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  • Roundup
  • What this means is that instead of using only one highly toxic herbicide (Roundup), three will be used simultaneously, further increasing the risk of serious exposures, and setting up the conditions for synergistic toxicities - something that toxicological risk assessments on singular herbicide ingredients, which establish "an acceptable level of harm," never account for. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This article is about RoundUp and other herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup was first developed by Monsanto in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) is a surfactant added to Roundup and other herbicides as a wetting agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glyphosate, a compound first identified as a herbicide in 1970 and sold beginning in the 1970s (initially only under the tradename Roundup), has been widely used as a broad-spectrum weedkiller because of its apparent relatively low toxicity and tendency to degrade relatively quickly in the environment. (infoplease.com)
  • Claims of biodegradability for Roundup (ie, that the herbicide breaks down when it contacts the ground) are therefore next to meaningless. (rainforestinfo.org.au)
  • mecoprop
  • Breeze VG, Timms LD (1986) Some effects of low doses of the phenoxyalkanoic herbicide mecoprop on the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its relation to spray drift damage. (springer.com)
  • 2,4-D can be found in commercial lawn herbicide mixtures, which often contain other active ingredients including mecoprop and dicamba. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Preemergence herbicides, mixed into the soil, will kill germinating seeds and small seedlings. (infoplease.com)
  • Will soil-applied herbicides work in a dry year? (umn.edu)
  • Herbicides vary in their potential to persist in soil. (psu.edu)
  • Generally, soils high in clay, organic matter, or both have a greater potential for carryover because of increased binding of the herbicide to soil particles, with a corresponding decrease in leaching and loss through volatilization. (psu.edu)
  • Under the right circumstances, however, herbicide carryover can occur in any type of soil. (psu.edu)
  • Chemical and microbial breakdown, two ways herbicides degrade in soil, often are slower in higher-pH soils. (psu.edu)
  • In particular, the chemical degradation rate of the triazine and sulfonylurea herbicide families slows as the soil pH increases, particularly above pH 7.0. (psu.edu)
  • In addition, in higher-pH soils, lesser amounts of these herbicides are bound to soil particles, making more available for plant uptake. (psu.edu)
  • Some triazine and sulfonylurea herbicides do not persist and carry over, regardless of how high the soil pH is. (psu.edu)
  • These volatile herbicides do not belong to one specific chemical type or category of use, but are often, although not exclusively, either an ester-based formulation or intended for soil incorporation. (springer.com)
  • In the case of soil-incorporated herbicides, vapor may facilitate the distribution through soil air spaces (Hance et al. (springer.com)
  • widely
  • 2,4-D is one of the oldest and most widely available herbicides in the world, having been commercially available since 1945, and is now produced by many chemical companies since the patent on it has long since expired. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,4-D was one of the ingredients in Agent Orange, a herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War. (wikipedia.org)
  • triazine
  • So in higher-pH soils, the triazine and sulfonylurea herbicides persist longer, and more is available for plant uptake. (psu.edu)
  • 1950s
  • Success with Project AGILE field tests with herbicides in South Vietnam in 1961 and inspiration by the British use of herbicides and defoliants during the Malayan Emergency in the 1950s led to the formal herbicidal program Trail Dust (see Operation Ranch Hand). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Herbicides , also commonly known as weedkillers , are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants . (wikipedia.org)
  • The low cost of 2,4-D has led to continued usage today, and it remains one of the most commonly used herbicides in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • atrazine
  • One of the most striking results for shallow ground water in agricultural areas, compared with streams, is the low rate of detection for several high-use herbicides other than atrazine. (sourcewatch.org)
  • This is probably because these herbicides break down faster in the natural environment compared to atrazine. (sourcewatch.org)
  • As in streams, the most frequently found herbicides in shallow ground water in urban areas were atrazine, DEA, simazine, and prometon. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Atrazine is thus said to have "carryover", a generally undesirable property for herbicides. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Glyphosate-based herbicides are usually made of a glyphosate salt that is combined with other ingredients that are needed to stabilize the herbicide formula and allow penetration into plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern herbicides are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones which interfere with growth of the target plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • herbicide hr´bəsīd˝ [ key ] , chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. (infoplease.com)
  • The herbicide Agent Orange was used extensively in the Vietnam War to defoliate broadleaf plants. (toxipedia.org)
  • Bennet RJ (1990) The volatilization of formulated ester, amine and K salt derivatives of phenoxyalkanoic herbicides: Evidence to connect herbicide activity with plant nutrient status of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG, West CJ (1987a) Long-and short-term effects of vapor of the herbicide 2,4-D butyl on the growth of tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG (1988a) Effects of low concentrations of vapor of the phenoxyalkanoic herbicide 2,4-D butyl on growth of tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG (1990) Uptake by tomato plants of the herbicide [ 14 C] 2,4-D butyl in the vapor phase. (springer.com)
  • Breeze VG, van Rensburg E (1991) Vapor of the free acid of the herbicide 2,4-D is toxic to tomato and lettuce plants. (springer.com)
  • That's why private forest landowners use herbicides to control competing plants and let the trees get a head start. (oregonforests.org)
  • Therefore, it is effective only on actively growing plants and is not effective as a pre-emergence herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • pesticide
  • According to a 1999 U.S. Geological Survey publication, "Herbicides are the most common type of pesticide found in streams and ground water within agricultural areas. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The science consisted solely of toxicologic studies commissioned by the herbicide manufacturers in the 1980s and 1990s and never published, not an uncommon practice in U.S. pesticide regulation. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Herbicides account for about 69% of all pesticide use in the United States, where they are used on around 90 million hectares, or around half of the country's farmlands. (toxipedia.org)
  • Throughout Oregon, forest herbicides account for just four percent of all pesticide use. (oregonforests.org)
  • ester
  • The result is that the same degree of weed control can be achieved with a smaller amount of ester-based herbicide than is possible with the salt. (springer.com)
  • mixture
  • It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, the chemical has caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • agricultural
  • In 2007, glyphosate was the most used herbicide in the United States' agricultural sector and the second-most used in home and garden (2,4-D being the most used), government and industry, and commerce. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientist Stephen O. Duke and Stephen B. Powles, an Australian weed expert - described glyphosate as a "virtually ideal" herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lawn
  • Achieve the most effective coverage by making two perpendicular passes over the lawn, using one-half of the total amount of herbicide on each pass. (gardenguides.com)
  • Agent Orange
  • Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orange, but it does require case-by-case consideration. (wikipedia.org)