• Duck hepatitis A viruses (DHAV-1, DHAV-2, and DHAV-3) are the predominant causes of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), a disease of ducklings that leads to massive morbidities, mortalities, and economic losses. (allenpress.com)
  • Upon retesting of positive samples using RT-PCR and duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV)-3 VP1-based primers, 33.3% (5/15) contained DHAV-3 RNA. (allenpress.com)
  • Accordingly, the vaccination strategy against DHAV should be quickly updated to avoid further dissemination of the virus. (allenpress.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines which contain the small envelope protein (S-HBs) of the virus provide significant protection against HBV infection. (asm.org)
  • Residual hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA can be detected following the resolution of acute HBV infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying occult hepatitis B virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A high level of mutation tolerance in the multifunctional sequence encoding the RNA encapsidation signal of an avian hepatitis B virus and slow evolution rate revealed by in vivo infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wild duck populations were investigated over a 4 year period for duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection and liver disease. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The follow up of natural infection indicated that wild mallards developed significantly higher serum titres to DHBV DNA than Pekin ducks. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver infection in human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Duck heptatitis B virus (DHBV) can naturally infect primary duck hepatocytes (PDHs) that provide valuable model systems for studying hepadnavirus infection in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-DHAV activities of 1 and 2 were compared in duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs) cultured in vitro and by artificial infection method in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combined treatment of duck liver cells with DHBV eAg (DHBe) concentrate and α -methyl- d -mannopyranoside strongly inhibited DHBV replication at de novo infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Requirement of activation for hepatitis B virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Enhancement of hepatitis B virus infection by noninfectious subviral particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In view of reported high frequency of laboratory aerosol infection that occurred in workers manipulating high concentrations of Pichinde virus, it is strongly recommended that work with high concentrations of Level 2 arenaviruses be done at Level 3. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis B infection can also be prevented by means of a recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Effect of duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 infection on glucose metabolism of Pekin ducklings and underlying mechanism. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The recent identification and characterization of animal strains of avian HEV has demonstrated the virus' ability of cross-species infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a 100-fold-higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Regarding the viral life cycle, in the related woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), ablation of the WHx start codon or creation of C-terminal truncations has been found to decrease viral replication in vitro ( 34 ) and to inhibit the establishment of productive infection in vivo ( 7 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem, affecting approximately 400 million people worldwide ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum-mediated induction of interleukin-8 occurs by hepatitis B virus infection and contributes to suppression of interferon responsiveness in human hepatocytes. (amedeo.com)
  • Characterization of apolipoprotein C1 in hepatitis C virus infection and morphogenesis. (amedeo.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis reveals three distinct epidemiological profiles in Dutch and Flemish blood donors with hepatitis B virus infection. (amedeo.com)
  • Unlike other pathogenic viruses, the initial steps of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including attachment and receptor recognition, but also subsequent processes, such as the endocytosis pathway, the mechanism of membrane fusion or the intracellular transport events are still unknown. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • At a minor viral dose (1.5×10(4) TCID50), the infection in day-old SPF chickens caused 40% mortality and lesions characteristic for Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome (HHS). (medworm.com)
  • In order to objectively determine the prevalence and co-infection status of the virus in Shandong province in China, we analyzed a total of 679 clinical cases of chickens and ducks from 36 farms in the province. (medworm.com)
  • Prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in vivo by entry inhibitors derived from the large envelope protein. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Hepatitis B virus infection initiates with a large surface protein-dependent binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Mapping of the hepatitis B virus attachment site by infection-inhibiting preS1 lipopeptides using primary Tupaia hepatocytes. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Efficient inhibition of hepatitis B virus infection by acylated peptides derived from the large viral surface protein. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Infection of a human hepatoma cell line by Hepatitis B Virus. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus infection by myristoylated preS peptides of the large viral surface protein. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Avian hepatitis B virus infection is initiated by the interaction of a distinct pre-S subdomain with its cellular receptor gp180. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • 2007 include further isolates of avirulent Newcastle disease virus, the first UK isolate of the QX strain of Infectious Bronchitis virus and the confirmation of Avian Encephalomyelitis virus infection in pheasants by PCR testing and serology. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Aichi virus infection in elderly people in Sweden. (lnu.se)
  • Human hepatitis B virus (HBV), the prototype member of a small family of related hepadnaviruses, remains a major agent of liver infection and a cause of liver disease throughout the world. (asm.org)
  • Dr. Tennant spent over thirty years on the study of Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus infection, working with a colony of woodchucks in Ithaca, New York. (hepb.org)
  • Today, the Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus infection study continues at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York. (hepb.org)
  • The viruses that cause DVH in ducklings should not be confused with duck hepatitis B virus, a hepadnavirus infection of older ducks. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (edu.au)
  • Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. (medsci.org)
  • The core promoter mutants have been associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis during acute infection and liver cancer during chronic infection. (medsci.org)
  • Hepatitis B patients also contain circulating antibodies against HBcAg (hepatitis B core antigen), and will develop antibodies against HBeAg and HBsAg (anti-HBe and anti-HBs) at later stages of infection. (medsci.org)
  • With the cloning of the HBV genome, it became apparent that the viremia titer (number of infectious virus particles) is highest during the HBeAg phase of infection, declines by several logs during the anti-HBe phase, and disappears at the anti-HBs phase (Fig. 1 ). (medsci.org)
  • What strategy should be used for diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in clinical laboratories? (wiley.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective strategy for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in clinical laboratories. (wiley.com)
  • symptoms of a hepatitis C infection include weakness, It is known that Hepatitis B is transmittable from mother to baby during pregnancy. (gravatar.com)
  • Tyzeka has not been studied in well-controlled trials for the treatment of patients with established nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant hepatitis B virus infection, but is expected to be cross-resistant to lamivudine [see Microbiology ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Currently approved treatments for chronic hepatitis B virus infection consist of either nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), which are well tolerated but usually have to be taken lifelong, or 48 weeks of pegylated interferon, which is associated with significant side effects ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Only a small subset of chronic hepatitis B patients are treated today (4 to 5% in the United States), and only 5 to 10% achieve immune control of infection (i.e., functional cure), as indicated by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss with or without HBsAg seroconversion ( 1 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • WHO, "Prevention & Controlo of Viral Hepatitis Infection: Framework for Global Action," 2012, http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/GHP_framework.pdf . (hindawi.com)
  • Y.-H. Shi, "Correlation between hepatitis B virus genotypes and clinical outcomes," Japan Journal Infection Diseases , vol. 65, pp. 476-482, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, Karayannis P, McGarvey MJ, Makris M, Thomas HC (1989) Mutations preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. (springer.com)
  • Ehata T, Omata M, Yokusuka O, Hosoda K, Ohto M (1992) Variations in codons 84-101 in the core nucleotide sequence correlate with hepatocellular injury in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Ferrari C, Penna A, Bertoletti A, Valli A, Degli-Antoni T, Giuberti A, Cavalli A, Petit MA, Fiaccadori F (1990) Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus- encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (springer.com)
  • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. (osti.gov)
  • Duck hepatitis B virus DNA in liver, spleen, and pancreas: analysis by in situ and Southern blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • However, following virus challenge, significant differences in the rate of virus removal from the bloodstream and the presence of virus replication in the liver were found between the groups. (asm.org)
  • 5 and 15 min postchallenge (p.c.) and no virus replication was detected in the liver at 4 days p.c. (asm.org)
  • The persistence in the liver of residual duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA is not dependent upon new viral DNA synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our previous work using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks, indicated that ~80% of residual DHBV DNA in the liver is in the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, suggesting that viral DNA synthesis is suppressed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The naturally infected mallard and Pekin ducks had only minor histological lesions of the liver compared with experimentally infected birds. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There was no correlation between the intensity of viraemia and the severity of liver lesions, suggesting that as for mammalian hepadnaviruses the hepatic injury in DHBV-infected ducks is probably immunologically mediated. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepadnaviridae are a family of viruses containing a circular, partially double-stranded DNA of ≈3 kbp that primarily infect the liver. (pnas.org)
  • We concluded that the repair of double-strand breaks by imprecise NHEJ is sometimes accompanied by insertion of viral sequences, implying that the amount of integrated viral DNA in the liver may reflect the degree of overall genetic damage sustained by the liver during a course of chronic hepatitis. (pnas.org)
  • Our previous research showed that icariin ( 1 ) and its phosphorylated structural modification ( 2 ) improved the survival and attenuated oxidative stress and liver dysfunction induced by duck virus hepatitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We concentrated this antigen from the supernatants of persistently infected primary duck liver cell cultures by ammonium sulphate precipitation, adsorption chromatography over concanavalin A Sepharose, preparative isoelectric focusing and molecular sieve chromatography. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • When DHBe was added to non-infected primary duck liver cells, it was found to be associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Endothelial cell-mediated uptake of a hepatitis B virus: a new concept of liver targeting of hepatotropic microorganisms. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepadnaviruses mainly infect the liver cells of their hosts and, in humans, cause hepatitis B, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Avihepadnavirus Template:Taxobox end Hepadnaviruses are a family of viruses which can cause liver infections in humans and animals. (wikidoc.org)
  • The avian HEV associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, big liver and spleen disease or hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome in chickens is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEV. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, serum HBcrAg levels correlated with HBV virological markers and reflected the chronic hepatitis B disease activity in the liver. (asm.org)
  • In vitro studies identify a low replication phenotype for hepatitis B virus genotype H generally associated with occult HBV and less severe liver disease. (amedeo.com)
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure and accelerates evolution toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • A serological survey reported in the April-June report confirmed that Big Liver and Spleen Disease virus is present in the UK. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global pathogen responsible for acute and chronic liver disease. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • The guanosine analogs BMS-200475 and lobucavir have previously been shown to effectively suppress propagation of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in 2.2.15 liver cells and in the woodchuck animal model system, respectively. (asm.org)
  • 2 As a veterinarian, Dr. Tennant conducted research in comparative medicine focusing on hepatocarcinogenesis (development of liver cancer), hepatic injury mechanisms, viral hepatitis, and gastrointestinal and liver diseases of domestic animals. (hepb.org)
  • 2 He developed the woodchuck as a successful animal model to learn how hepatitis B effects the liver, including the development of liver cancer. (hepb.org)
  • The perennial weed has been known for its curative properties since ancient times, and has been utilized for the treatment of various ailments, such as hepatitis, spleen and liver complaints, dyspepsia and anorexia ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, the effect of a traditional herbal preparation containing T. mongolicum was observed in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The results showed that liver enzymes were significantly more likely to return to normal levels in patients who had been administered the preparation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Sudden onset, rapid spread, and short course, together with characteristic liver lesions, are highly suggestive of duck viral hepatitis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • DHAV-1 may be isolated in duck embryos and duck-embryo liver cell cultures, or less easily in chicken embryos. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • By direct immunofluorescence a new antigen associated with, but distinct from, NANBe Ag has now been identified in the liver of 14/26 patients with NANB chronic active hepatitis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Further characterization of NANBe and NANBc antigens achieved by fractionation of a NANB virus‐infected liver showed NANBc Ag to be expressed on 22-25 nm HB core‐like particles containing DNA polymerase activity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Liver‐derived NANBe Ag identical to serum NANBe Ag exhibited the same physical properties as HBe/3 Ag and could be similarly released by disruption of the non‐A, non‐B virus cores. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, recent advances in the propagation of liver cells such as the introduction of temperature sensitive mutant Simian virus 40 (SV-40) T antigen mutants 4 may obviate the need for harvests of large numbers of host cells for genetic manipulation. (bmj.com)
  • Infectious hepatitis is a condition that affects the liver. (gravatar.com)
  • There are certain ailments of the liver such as hepatitis that will get aggravated if you use these hormonal contraceptive implant. (gravatar.com)
  • discussed their study of the hepatitis B virus in infected duck liver. (gravatar.com)
  • Non alcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network, harvoni ordered on line cheap harvoni discount Cirrhosis of the liver and Hepatitis inhibits the conversion of ammonia into urea leading to death if not corrected. (gravatar.com)
  • This indication is based on virologic, serologic, biochemical and histologic responses in nucleoside treatment naïve adult patients with HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B with compensated liver disease [see Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of hepatitis, liver failure, and liver cancer. (slu.edu)
  • Efficacy of hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H inhibitors, a new class of replication antagonists, in FRG human liver chimeric mice. (slu.edu)
  • INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) the prototypic member of the hepadnavirus family is a major cause of liver disease worldwide ranging from acute and chronic hepatitis to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (acmbcb.org)
  • The icosahedral nucleocapsid within, is composed of the virus core antigen (DHBcAg) and surrounds the DNA genome and viral polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duck hepatitis B surface antigen distribution in the same tissues correlated well with the presence of DHBV DNA in many of these cells. (nih.gov)
  • The e antigen (eAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is a glycosylated secretory protein with a currently unknown function. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepadnavirus-infected cells translate the protein known as the virus surface antigen many times until there is too much protein to coat the virions formed. (wikidoc.org)
  • These proteins then aggregate to form rod shapes, and it is this antigen, known as the Australian or hepatitis B surface antigen, which is released from the cell and which leads to a very strong immune response from the host. (wikidoc.org)
  • A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) detection. (asm.org)
  • A higher HBcrAg concentration was associated with a greater proportion of hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)
  • A greater reduction in posttreatment HBcrAg concentration was associated with histological improvement and a decrease in hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. (asm.org)
  • Several assays have been developed for the measurement of serum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) concentrations ( 1 , 3 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The capsid (core antigen, HBcAg) is one of three major antigens present in patients infected with Hepatitis B Virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hantz, O. 1981-01-01 00:00:00 Using immunodiffusion, a major cross‐reactivity had been previously demonstrated between hepatitis B(HBe/3 Ag) and the antigen reported in the serum of non‐A, non‐B hepatitis patients, therefore redesignated NANBe Ag. (deepdyve.com)
  • The virus was first discovered as "Australia antigen", later renamed HBsAg (for hepatitis B surface antigen), in patient blood [ 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen) was identified several years later as a marker for patients at high risk for transmission of the disease [ 20 ]. (medsci.org)
  • J. Lei, B. A. Campbell, C. Cervantes, L. Bronstein, D. Hong, and D. Sustarsic, "Detection of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants by immulite 2000 HBsAg assay," DPC Technical Report ZB248-A, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Bertoletti A, Ferrari C, Fiaccadori F, Penna A, Margolskee R, Schlicht HJ, Fowler P, Guilhot S, Chisari FV (1991) HLA class I restricted human cytotoxic T cells recognize endogenously synthesized hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid antigen. (springer.com)
  • Brunetto MR, Stemler M, Bonino F, Schödel F, Oliveri F, Rizzetto M, Verme G, Will H (1990) Identification of HBV variants which cannot produce precore derived e-antigen and may be responsible for severe hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • On binding and entry of the virus to the host cell, the genome is transported to the nucleus to be transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of Picornaviridae , DHAV is a small, non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome approximately 7800 nucleotides in length. (frontiersin.org)
  • We cloned and sequenced the complete genome of duck hepatitis B virus strain of Indian origin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Predicted schematic representation of the bat hepatitis virus (BtHV) genome and its phylogenetic relationship with other hepadnaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses, and possesses a positive-strand RNA genome [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • New virus particles are formed, which acquire lipid from the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell, and the genome is packaged within these particles, which then bud off from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • A Novel cis-Acting Element Facilitates Minus-Strand DNA Synthesis during Reverse Transcription of the Hepatitis B Virus Genome by Myeong-Kyun Shin, Jehan Lee and Wang-Shick Ryu in Journal of Virology (2004) volume 78, pages 6252-6262. (wikidoc.org)
  • These include reports describing virus morphology, the function and antigenic analysis of virus structural components, virus genome structure and expression, analysis on virus replication processes, virus evolution in connection with antiviral interventions, effects of viruses on their host cells, particularly on the immune system, and the pathogenesis of virus infections, including oncogene activation and transduction. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus with a complete genome of approximately 6.6 kb in size. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review discusses the recent advances of genome-editing tools for treating tumorigenic viruses and their corresponding cancers, the challenges that must be overcome before clinically applying such genome-editing technologies, and more importantly, the potential solutions to these challenges. (springer.com)
  • 2016). Structure and Genome Release Mechanism of the Human Cardiovirus Saffold Virus 3 . (lnu.se)
  • 2016). Structure of Aichi Virus 1 and Its Empty Particle : Clues to Kobuvirus Genome Release Mechanism . (lnu.se)
  • 2015). Structure of Ljungan virus provides insight into genome packaging of this picornavirus . (lnu.se)
  • A new genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete genome and phylogenetic relatedness," Journal of General Virology , vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 67-74, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Chen HS, Kew MC, Hornbuckle WE, Tennant BC, Core PJ, Gerin JL, Purcell RH, Miller RH (1992) The precore gene of the woodchuck hepatitis virus genome is not essential for viral replication in the natural host. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) synthesizes its DNA genome through reverse transcription which is catalyzed by viral polymerase (Pol). (acmbcb.org)
  • Duck hepatitis is an acute and fatal disease in ducklings caused by the Avihepatovirus DHV-1 and DHV-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. (osti.gov)
  • Anti-S serum abolished virus infectivity when preincubated with DHBV before inoculation into 1-day-old ducklings and primary duck hepatocyte cultures, while anti-pre-S/S serum showed very limited capacity to neutralize virus infectivity in these two systems. (asm.org)
  • Duck virus hepatitis (DVH) is an acute, highly contagious, and rapidly fatal disease of young ducklings usually less than 4 weeks of age. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complete sequence of a duck astrovirus associated with fatal hepatitis in ducklings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Development of duck hepatitis A virus type 3 vaccine and its use to protect ducklings against infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The results of experimental transmission demonstrated that such differences in viraemia were not related to the breed of ducks but to the virus isolate, since the wild mallard-isolated DHBV (DHBV wm ) induced significantly higher viraemia in both mallard and Pekin ducklings compared to the domestic Pekin DHBV (DHBV p ) isolate. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • TTF.Methods1 - day old Beijing ducklings were used as the hepatitis B animal model. (docsford.com)
  • Duck hepatitis A viruses (DHAV-1, DHAV-2, and DHAV-3) are the predominant causes of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), a disease of ducklings that leads to massive morbidities, mortalities, and economic losses. (allenpress.com)
  • In the absence of effective anti-DHAV drugs, immunizing ducks or young ducklings with attenuated DHAV vaccines is the primary approach to disease control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using an inoculum of 50 microliters serum containing 1 x 10(11) virus particles /ml, we could infect 80% of one day old ducklings and develop a duck colony. (bvsalud.org)
  • Duck hepatitis type 1 virus was isolated with avian influenza H3N8 from ducklings (pages 12 -13). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Duck viral hepatitis is an acute infectious disease affecting young ducklings. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Duck viral hepatitis (DVH) is an acute, highly contagious, viral disease typically affecting ducklings less than six weeks of age. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Viruses that differ from DHAV have been recognized as causes of DVH in ducklings. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The virus can also be identified by virus neutralization with specific antisera or by inoculation into both susceptible and immune day-old ducklings. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The present work may shed light on a new perspective for antiviral agent development, and have provided a virus-host cell system for further studies on molecular mechanism involved DHAV-1 replication and pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • beta-L-Nucleoside analogs represent a new class of potent antiviral agents with low cytotoxicity which provide new hope in the therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. (duke.edu)
  • Characterisation of the Indian strain of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and development of a carrier duck colony for antiviral drug testing. (bvsalud.org)
  • In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically‑injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Hepatic purine and pyrimidine metabolism: implications for antiviral chemotherapy of viral hepatitis. (edu.au)
  • HBV capsid assembly is a critical step in virus production and an attractive target for new antiviral therapies. (asm.org)
  • M. V. Alvarado-Mota and J. R. Pinho, "Epidemiological update of hepatitis B, C and delta in Latin America," Antiviral Therapy , vol. 18, pp. 429-433, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, knowledge of the subcellular localization of viral proteins in a host cell or virus-infected cell is very useful for in-depth studying of their functions and mechanisms as well as designing antiviral drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is increasingly believed to play a role in viral persistence, pathogenesis, and the type of response to antiviral therapy. (springer.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) easily establishes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (mdpi.com)
  • HCV mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, but frequently establishes chronic infections, leading to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic infections), cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hepatocytes and pancreatic islet cells, 60% of DHBV DNA was present as single-stranded DNA, indicating the likelihood of ongoing virus replication in these cell types and providing further evidence that hepadnavirus DNA replication occurs largely within the cell cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • When replication of an avian hepadnavirus, duck hepatitis B virus, occurred at the time of double-strand break repair, we observed integration of viral DNA at the site of the break with a frequency of ≈10 -4 per transfected cell. (pnas.org)
  • Duck hepatitis B virus ( DHBV ) infected carrier ducks serve as a useful model for testing anti- hepadnavirus drugs . (bvsalud.org)
  • The hepatitis B virus and the mammalian hepadnavirus genomes encode for a short open reading frame called x. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the replication levels of the duck hepatitis B virus, a hepadnavirus that lacks the x open reading frame, were unchanged in the context of XIP expression. (asm.org)
  • Other members of the hepadnavirus family include woodchuck hepatitis computer virus (WHV) and duck hepatitis B computer virus (DHBV) (1). (acmbcb.org)
  • The virus has also provided as a useful animal model in the absence of one from the HBV, and as scaffold for the development of chimeric virus-like particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAseH assays were performed under a wide variety of conditions employing substrate RNAs of Duck Hepatitis B Virus sequence annealed to complementary DNA oligonucleotides and permeabilized intracellular viral core particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Antibodies-online offers ELISA kits and antibodies for research of over 150 viral targets and virus like particles to assist researchers investigating virus structure, replication, pathogenesis and evolution . (antibodies-online.com)
  • This change was accompanied by a million-fold increase in the number of virus particles infecting each honey bee and a massive reduction in viral strain diversity leading to the emergence of a single 'virulent' DWV strain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Impact of immune escape mutations and N-linked glycosylation on the secretion of hepatitis B virus virions and subviral particles: Role of the small envelope protein. (amedeo.com)
  • Alix regulates egress of hepatitis B virus naked capsid particles in an ESCRT-independent manner. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • In addition to the release of rcDNA-containing viral particles, it was reported that RNA-containing HBV-like particles are secreted in the cell culture supernatant and patient serum, and the release of such particles has been linked to efficacy and the prognosis of chronic hepatitis B treatment ( 11 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Three main open reading frames are encoded (ORFs) and the virus has four known genes which encode the core protein, the virus polymerase , surface antigens (preS1, preS2, and S) and the X protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • This 9.6-kDa protein is capable of binding to HBx in vitro, and transient and stable expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells abolishes the transactivation properties of HBx on luciferase constructs driven by AP-1 and endogenous hepatitis B virus enhancer/promoter elements. (asm.org)
  • We propose that one of the physiologic functions of the cellular protein XIP is to negatively regulate HBx activity and thus to alter the replication life cycle of the virus. (asm.org)
  • Differential effects on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site by vitamin B12 and the HCV core protein. (edu.au)
  • Sequence and structure relatedness of matrix protein of human respiratory syncytial virus with matrix proteins of other negative-sense RNA viruses. (edu.au)
  • Core gene insertion in hepatitis B virus genotype G functions at both the encoded amino acid sequence and RNA structure levels to stimulate core protein expression. (amedeo.com)
  • Envelope protein-mediated down-regulation of a hepatitis B virus receptor in infected hepatocytes. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Cytosol is the prime compartment of hepatitis B virus X protein where it colocalizes with the proteasome. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Isolation of highly purified, functional carboxy-terminally truncated hepatitis B virus middle surface protein activators from eucaryotic expression systems. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The participating cellular protein networks and mechanisms and their differential use by the virus are not fully resolved in their complexity, hierarchy and regulation and will be characterized in continuing works using a range of cell biological, biochemical, and imaging approaches. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • AbstractFull-length infectious cDNA clones for recombinant HY12 bovine enteroviruses designated as rHY12-3A-2-HA, rHY12-3A-3-HA, and rHY12-3A-9-HA were constructed by the insertion of an epitope from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus of the HY12-encoded 3A protein at amino acid positions 2, 3, and 9. (medworm.com)
  • Duck Hepatitis B core protein forms capsids with a slowly folding extension domain which folding competence is important for viral replication. (elifesciences.org)
  • Li J, Tong S, Wands J. Identification and expression of glycine decarboxylase (p120) as a duck hepatitis B virus pre-S envelope-binding protein. (labome.org)
  • While the subcellular localization of many alphaherpesvirus UL51 proteins has been well characterized, little is known about where duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL51 protein (pUL51) is targeted to. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fernholz D, Galle PR, Stemler M, Brunetto M, Bonino F, Will H (1993) In¬fectious hepatitis B virus variant defective in pre-S2 protein expression in a chronic carrier. (springer.com)
  • Wang M, Chai L, Liang S, Lv J, Yang L, Qu S, Jin M, Li Q, Wang X, Zhang D. Fetal Calf Serum Exerts an Inhibitory Effect on Replication of Duck Hepatitis A Virus Genotype 1 in Duck Embryo Fibroblast Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Recombinant hepatitis C virus genotype 5a infectious cell culture systems expressing minimal JFH1 NS5B sequences permit polymerase inhibitor studies. (amedeo.com)
  • Identification of nucleotides in the 5'UTR and amino acids substitutions that are essential for the infectivity of 5'UTR-NS5A recombinant of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (strain Con1). (amedeo.com)
  • however, there are some who cannot, and these patients progress to fulminant Hepatitis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Carman WF, Fagan E, Hadziyannis S, Karayiannis P, Tassopoulos NC, Williams R, Thomas HC (1990) Association of a precore genomic variant of hepatitis B virus with fulminant hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • At the 2016 Hepatitis B Foundation Crystal Ball, Dr. Tennant was presented with the 2016 Baruch S. Blumberg Prize, the Foundation's highest honor. (hepb.org)
  • 2016). HBF at the Forefront: Hepatitis B Foundation Hits Nearly $125,000 Monte Carlo Jackpot! (hepb.org)
  • Discoveries concerning new virus structure, replication, pathogenesis and evolution are elemental to understand the work mechanisms and possible treatments. (antibodies-online.com)
  • His work in hepatitis started during his tenure as the James Law Professor of Comparative Medicine at Cornell University, where he studied the pathogenesis of serum hepatitis in horses. (hepb.org)
  • Clinical signs and gross lesions in all age ducks are diagnostic. (poultryworld.net)
  • The economic importance of the viruses (except in ducks) is difficult to assess because the virus is frequently isolated in conjunction with other pathogens, and frequently without clinical symptoms. (cabi.org)
  • His work with the woodchuck model ultimately enabled scientists to run clinical therapeutic trials for treating hepatitis B in humans. (hepb.org)
  • Although adults may become infected, clinical signs have not been seen in ducks >7 weeks old . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue anti-hepatitis B therapy. (rxlist.com)
  • Tissues from a 10-week-old Pekin duck, experimentally infected at 1 day of age with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), were examined for the presence of replicative levels of DHBV DNA by in situ and Southern blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • The efficacy of DNA vaccines encoding the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) pre-S/S and S proteins were tested in Pekin ducks. (asm.org)
  • 300 mg / kg group, infected duck serum DHBV - DNA level of inhibition significantly, stopping 3 d no signif icant anti - jump phenomenon. (docsford.com)
  • Specific inhibition of virus entry into host cells is an established and powerful therapeutic concept to come across acute infections. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The down-regulated expression of beta-actin and annexin A2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, and potential roles of some differentially expressed proteins in the virus-infected cells have been discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isolation of a glycoprotein and two structural proteins of Maedi-Visna virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Minor envelope proteins of duck hepatitis B virus are initiated at internal pre-S AUG codons but are not essential for infectivity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Zinc finger proteins designed to specifically target duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA inhibit viral transcription in tissue culture. (springer.com)
  • Being obligate intracellular parasites, viruses heavily depend on host cell structures and functions to complete their life cycle, and they also use the translational apparatus of the infected cell to express their proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HBV is a 3.2-kb DNA virus that encodes 4 open reading frames and 7 proteins. (asm.org)
  • Characterisation of foscarnet-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (edu.au)
  • In an animal model of HBV, the woodchuck hepatitis virus, viral DNA found integrated in HCC commonly activates members of the myc family of protooncogenes ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • hepatitis B virus , woodchuck hepatitis virus , ground squirrel hepatitis virus , and woolly monkey hepatitis B virus . (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, BMS-200475 exhibits excellent efficacy against woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in chronically infected carrier woodchucks at oral dosages as low as 0.02 mg/kg of body weight/day ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Investigation of the viral growth kinetics revealed that the two viruses replicated in DEF cells with similar efficiencies, while the viral load of the virulent C-GY strain peaked more rapidly when compared with the attenuated YDF120 strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This needs a well characterised duck hepatitis B virus strain . (bvsalud.org)
  • As the mite and new virulent strain of virus becomes established across the Hawaiian islands the new emerging viral landscape will mirror that found across the rest of the world where Varroa is now established. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Brunetto MR, Stemler M, Schödel F, Will H, Ottbrelli A, Rizzetto M, Verme G, Bonino F (1989) A new hepatitis B virus strain in a subset of patients with severe chronic hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • Mapping the major transcripts of ground squirrel hepatitis virus: the presumptive template for reverse transcriptase is terminally redundant. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Ducks geese and swans of all ages are susceptible to the duck enteritis virus, which is a herpes virus transmitted from bird to bird, by bloodsucking arthropods, or by contact with contaminated environment or water. (poultryworld.net)
  • Since HBeAg and HBcAg share a 149-amino-acid sequence identity, they are collectively called hepatitis B core-related antigens (HBcrAg) ( 5 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as 1 week post-vaccination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tyzeka is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adult patients with evidence of viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease. (rxlist.com)
  • TTF duck serum duck hepatitis B virus DNA (DHBV - DNA) effects. (docsford.com)
  • In primary duck hepatocyte culture, beta-L-F-ddC showed a potent inhibitory effect on DHBV DNA synthesis which was concentration dependent. (duke.edu)
  • This is the first report to identify the therapeutic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine on the subsequent risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic hepatitis B. (bmj.com)
  • It simulates influenza, duck viral hepatitis, and fowl cholera. (poultryworld.net)
  • iang Diao Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the pathogenic agent of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and ducks, which has caused huge economic losses for the Chinese poultry industry since 2015. (medworm.com)
  • Objective Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are reported to exhibit higher risk of subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (bmj.com)
  • Apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, induced by contact between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and its receptors, could contribute to the cell depletion observed in HIV-infected individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Future research activities will also focus on the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a unique viroid that requires the HBV envelope for propagation and infectivity. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus type 2 and duck hepatitis virus type 3 as astroviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 to CXCR4 induces mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of Fas signaling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Investigation of the role of XIP in hepatitis B virus replication in differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells revealed that XIP expression reduces wild-type hepatitis B virus replication to levels observed following transfection with an HBx-minus virus. (asm.org)
  • The raft-promoting property of virion-associated cholesterol, but not the presence of virion-associated Brij 98 rafts, is a determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity. (edu.au)
  • DVH Type III is also now classified as an astrovirus (DAstV-2) and can be propagated in duck (but not chicken) embryos. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Consistent with their enhanced pathogenicity, core promoter mutants were found to replicate at up to 10-fold higher levels in transfected human hepatoma cells than the wild-type virus. (medsci.org)
  • The recombinant HY12 viruses expressing the HA epitope were rescued and characterized using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, western blotting, and electron microscopy. (medworm.com)
  • The three rescued recombinant marker viruses showed similar characteristics, such as TCID50 titer, plaque size, and growth properties, to th. (medworm.com)