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  • Metabolic
  • Cerebral Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Encephalopathy", D. W. Mc Candless, ed. (springer.com)
  • Hypoglycaemia (due to depleted hepatic glycogen store and hyperinsulinaemia), hypokalaemia, hypophosphataemia and Metabolic alkalosis are often present, independent of renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hyperacute and acute liver failure the clinical picture develops rapidly with progressive encephalopathy and multiorgan dysfunction such as hyperdynamic circulation, coagulopathy, acute renal and respiratory insufficiency, severe metabolic alterations and cerebral edema that can lead to brain death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seizures in babies are most commonly caused by hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system (CNS) infections, trauma, congenital CNS abnormalities, and metabolic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • lethargy
  • A feature of first-stage hepatic encephalopathy is an inverted sleep-wake pattern, while the second stage is characterized by changes in personality and lethargy and the third stage by increased confusion. (news-medical.net)
  • severe
  • The tendon reflexes may be exaggerated, and the plantar reflex may be abnormal, namely extending rather than flexing (Babinski's sign) in severe encephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disorder that encompasses a spectrum or continuum of disease that ranges from a subtle condition with no outward signs or symptoms to a severe form that can cause serious, life-threatening complications. (rarediseases.org)
  • Hepatic encephalopathy can be associated with more severe symptoms including reduced alertness, shortened attention span, disruptions in sleep patterns, mild confusion, slowing of the ability to perform mental tasks and mood or personality changes. (rarediseases.org)
  • astrocytes
  • In previous studies of hepatic encepalopathy, the presence of Alzheimer type II astrocytes corresponded to mitochondrial degeneration, as well as previously known phenotypic characteristics such as a prominent nucleolus and enlarged pale nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer type II astrocytes are present in hepatic encephalopathy and Wilson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In hepatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer type II astrocytes are characterized by thin chromatin and increased glycogen levels. (wikipedia.org)