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  • genes
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This revealed virus host factors and a suite of glycosylation units, including all known Walker-Warburg genes and five additional factors critical for the modification of alpha-DG. (ru.nl)
  • Our findings accentuate the complexity of this posttranslational feature and point out genes defective in dystroglycanopathies. (ru.nl)
  • The innate immune system has an extensive early sensing mechanism to immediately detect viral pathogens, alert neighboring cells to the presence of an invading virus, and initiate the expression of genes designed to limit virus replication and spread (reviewed in references 8 , 15 , and 19 ). (asm.org)
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Recombinant, chimaeric live, attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVaxTM) incorporating the envelope genes of Japanese encephalitis (SA 14-14-2) virus and the capsid and nonstructural genes of yellow fever (17D) virus is safe, immunogenic and protective in non-human primates", Vaccine (1999), 17:1869-1882. (lens.org)
  • Analysis of the chimaeric virus showed that it was avirulent indicating that none of the structural or accessory genes derived from a virulent isolate of IBV were able to restore virulence and that therefore, the loss of virulence associated with the Beaudette strain resides in the replicase gene. (jove.com)
  • Sequential transcription of the genes of vesicular stomatitis virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • pathogens
  • A plant virus used in vaccine development to deliver antigens from pathogens and tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Currently, he is studying why some pathogens are particularly likely to jump between species and spread, and using metagenomic technology to discover novel viruses and determine the possible microbial cause of disease syndromes (e.g. emerging tick-borne disease in Australia). (edu.au)
  • In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS Pathogens, scientists funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) report a significant link between one such defective virus and the high rate of transmission of DENV-1 in Myanmar in 2001. (healthcanal.com)
  • They have been observed for many human pathogens and are generated frequently for viruses that have high mutation rates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In findings published Feb. 28 in the journal PLoS Pathogens, UCLA scientists and their colleagues report for the first time a significant link between a defective virus and an increased rate of transmission of a major disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We use a combination of molecular, cell biological, and genetic tools to understand how viruses invade host cells and evade host defenses with recent emphasis on emerging viral pathogens. (upenn.edu)
  • The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. (jove.com)
  • Lassa
  • During the quarter, GeoVax announced that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) had awarded the Company a $2.4 million cooperative agreement in support of its novel Lassa Fever (LF) vaccine development program. (crystalra.com)
  • To identify modifiers of alpha-DG, we performed a haploid screen for Lassa virus entry, a hemorrhagic fever virus causing thousands of deaths annually that hijacks glycosylated alpha-DG to enter cells. (ru.nl)
  • gene
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it's the same lineage, and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith. (healthcanal.com)
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it is the same lineage and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith, who holds UCLA's De Logi Chair in Biological Sciences. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Envelope protein gene sequences of DENV-1 from 12 patients infected on the island of New Caledonia were obtained, five of which carried genotype I viruses and six, genotype II viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Analysis of the glycoprotein gene of Tacaribe virus and neutralization-resistant variants. (springer.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that transfection of recircularized MCVSyn DNA into some human cell lines recapitulates efficient replication of the viral genome, early and late gene expression together with virus particle formation. (jove.com)
  • Twenty-five years ago, MDA-funded investigators identified the dystrophin gene that, when mutated (or defective) causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy as well as the somewhat milder Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)," explained Mendell, Curran-Peters Chair of Pediatric Research at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Professor of Pediatrics and Neurology at Ohio State University. (redorbit.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the replacement of the S gene from an avirulent strain (Beaudette) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with an S gene from a virulent strain (M41) resulted in a recombinant virus (BeauR-M41(S)) with the in vitro cell tropism of the virulent virus but that was still avirulent. (jove.com)
  • The recombinant IBV was in effect a chimaeric virus with the replicase gene derived from Beaudette and the rest of the genome from M41. (jove.com)
  • Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) based on the glycoprotein gene. (ictvonline.org)
  • A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity. (ictvonline.org)
  • Gene expression of vesicular stomatitis virus genome RNA. (ictvonline.org)
  • Cytokine
  • The cytokine response of U937-derived macrophages infected through antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus disrupts cell apical-junction complexes and increases vascular permeability," Journal of Virology , vol. 87, no. 13, pp. 7486-7501, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • measles
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • replication
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biologists had thought that defective viruses interfered with normal versions of the virus, "clogging up the gears of viral replication," he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Other viruses, however, such as the herpesviruses , actually enter a time known as "viral latency," when little or no replication is taking place until further replication is initiated by a specific trigger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Besides their function in the virus replication cycle, the viral glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, minor matrix protein and polymerase cofactor are viral determinants of pathogenicity, with evasion of the host innate and adaptive immune responses as the main mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • negative-strand RNA viruses
  • This finding raises the question whether antiviral RNAi, which is triggered by the presence of dsRNA in insects, represents an effective host-defense mechanism against negative-strand RNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of the innate immune response against negative-strand RNA viruses in mammals revealed that triphosphate groups at the 5′ ends of the uncapped viral RNAs, rather than long dsRNAs, play a critical role in the induction of IFN synthesis ( 10 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • pathogenic viruses
  • Many human pathogenic viruses and animal pathogenic viruses, some of which are relatively obscure and outside the mainstream, continue to be considered potentially useful bioweapons, and recent accounts of their production and stockpiling attest this fact. (asmscience.org)
  • mRNA
  • The 5' terminal structure of the methylated mRNA synthesized in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • human
  • Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cytotoxic T lymphocyt
  • Induction and exhaustion of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes vizualized using soluble tetrameric major histocompatibility complex class-I-peptide complexes. (springer.com)
  • leakage
  • There are four closely related serotypes of DENV (DENV-1 to DENV-4) that can cause asymptomatic infections or clinical illnesses ranging from the self-limiting but debilitating dengue fever to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which are characterized by vascular leakage ( 76 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Virus-induced decline in soluble vascular endothelial growth receptor 2 is associated with plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever," Journal of Virology , vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 1592-1600, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • novel
  • His interest in the emergence and spread of novel viral infections began in the late 1980s/early 1990s, as this was a time of the highest rates of HIV-associated deaths and when hepatitis C virus was first identified. (edu.au)
  • The data generated will be used to reveal some of the fundamental roles of virus ecology and evolution, and understand the measurable impact of the novel infections on public and animal health. (edu.au)
  • To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the basis of conserved sequence homology 1 . (jove.com)
  • Virol
  • Mutagenesis of the Signal Sequence of Yellow Fever Virus prM Protein: Enhancement of Signalase Cleavage In Vitro Is Lethal for Virus Production", J. Virol. (lens.org)
  • genome
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ticks
  • The virus is spread by hard (Ixodid) ticks, and appears to be dependent on the tick vector for dissemination, with no direct transmission between animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • East Africa
  • Lessons from history: viral surveillance in 1940s East Africa: Epidemiological notes on some viruses isolated in Uganda, G. W. A. Dick, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1953;47(1):13-48. (ox.ac.uk)
  • UCLA
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James O. Lloyd-Smith, a UCLA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and the senior author of the research. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James Lloyd-Smith, an ecologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). (nsf.gov)