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  • endothelial
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitors
  • Highly purified in vivo transplantable mouse stem cells are maintained in AFT024 cultures at input levels, whereas other primitive progenitors are expanded. (pnas.org)
  • Stromal Cell Line
  • The classic OP9-DL1 culture system utilizes a coculture of HSPC with a murine bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (OP9) that ectopically expresses the Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have characterized a stem cell supportive stromal cell line, AFT024, that was derived from murine fetal liver. (pnas.org)
  • The most potent stromal cell line, AFT024, maintains highly purified fetal and adult stem cell populations in vitro , for at least 4-7 weeks. (pnas.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Peripheral blood stem cell allograft rejection mediated by CD4 + T lymphocytes recognizing a single mismatch at HLA-DP β 1*0901," Blood , vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1122-1126, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells include T lymphocytes (T cells), that primarily mediate the immune system, B lymphocytes (B cells) and Natural Killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often involves the analysis of antiserum samples that contain specific antibodies against the immunizing antigen, and blood lymphocytes from lymphoid organs for examination of T cell-mediated responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, which detects and counts lymphocytes passing through a laser beam. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, adoptive transfer is used to study the effects of lymphocytes in the absence of other lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • infantile osteopetrosis
  • Neuropathic infantile osteopetrosis Infantile osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis Infantile osteopetrosis with immunodeficiency IO with leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome (LAD-III) Intermediate osteopetrosis Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (Albers-Schonberg) Pyknodysostosis (osteopetrosis acro-osteolytica) Osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome) Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis Mixed sclerosing bone dysplasia Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Camurati-Engelmann disease) SOST-related sclerosing bone dysplasias The only effective line of treatment for malignant infantile osteopetrosis is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Radiographs of at least one case with malignant infantile osteopetrosis have demonstrated bone remodeling and recanalization of medullar canals following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Major areas of interest include the basic mechanisms involved in regulating the production and terminal development of blood cells, referred to as hematopoiesis. (nih.gov)
  • Through the process of hematopoiesis, all cellular blood components are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • however, the best characterized stem cells are those responsible for hematopoiesis ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • These cultured stem cells retain the ability to regenerate in vivo hematopoiesis after transplantation in a manner that is indistinguishable from their freshly purified counterparts ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pioneering work of Till and McCulloch in 1961 experimentally confirmed the development of blood cells from a single precursor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), creating the framework for the field of hematopoiesis to be studied over the following decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Compared to conventional methods, such as fluorescent antibodies against certain surface proteins, we know how the cells will decide three cell generations earlier," reports ICB scientist Dr. Felix Buggenthin, joint first author of the study together with Dr. Florian Büttner. (innovations-report.com)
  • These changes can often be tracked by monitoring the presence of proteins on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The lymphoid lineage is primarily composed of T-cells and B-cells (types of white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The further specialized a cell is, the more differentiated it is and as a result it is considered to be more committed to a certain cellular lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast) → megakaryoblast → promegakaryocyte → megakaryocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • The mechanisms that regulate cell fate choices in all stem cell systems have cell-autonomous (stem cell intrinsic) and non-cell-autonomous (microenvironmental) components. (pnas.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • We offer a broad range of tools and technologies to culture hematopoietic stem cells including Stemline ® optimized serum-free expansion media, growth factors, cytokines and a broad range or HSC related antibodies and characterization kits. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An RNA expression survey for known stem cell regulatory cytokines, both positive and negative, did not reveal significant differences among supportive and nonsupportive cell lines ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is similar to the ELISA assay in that antibodies bound to plastic wells are used to bind the cytokines secreted by T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • This view has been challenged by recent observations that suggest a high degree of plasticity or transdifferentiation for stem cells ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • thymus
  • The mechanisms of preventing self-reactive T cells from being created takes place through negative selection process within the thymus as the T cell is developing into a mature immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The second edition is fully revised and includes new chapters on microbiome, metabolism, kinase targets, micro-RNA and mRNA regulatory mechanisms, signaling pathways in GVHD, innate lymphoid system development, recovery and function in GVHD, genetically engineered T-cell therapies, immune system engagers for GVHD and graft-versus-tumor, and hematopoietic cell transplant for tolerance induction in solid organ grafts. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the establishment of the autoimmune etiology of type 1 DM in the late 1970s, many clinical trials analyzing the effects of different types of immune interventions demonstrated that beta-cell preservation is an achievable target in different degrees. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The immune system consists of specialized cells that work together to fight off bacteria, fungi and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with RD have a genetic defect that affects the T cells and at least one other type of immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since more than one type of immune cell is affected, this disease is classified as a severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell immune responses are measured by analyzing antibodies produced through the humoral immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionizing radiation kills lymphoid cells while leaving other tissues of the body intact, and this eliminates immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that antigen receptor stimulation-induced NF-AT/AP-1 activity is regulated through the nuclear receptor NR2F6 (NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of NF-AT/AP-1 transactivation) and that by preventing NR2F6 function, transcriptional activation of NF-AT/AP-1 is enhanced in immune cells which leads to an augmented immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • When any one of these mechanisms fail, it is possible to have a reservoir of self-reactive cells that become functional within the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmunity, on the other hand, is the presence of self-reactive immune response (e.g., auto-antibodies, self-reactive T cells), with or without damage or pathology resulting from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of molecular mimicry describes a situation in which a foreign antigen can initiate an immune response in which a T or B cell component cross-recognizes self. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, diagnosis involves several preliminary tests of immune function, including basic evaluation of the humoral immune system and the cell-mediated immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutropenia
  • Candidates for HSCTs include pediatric cases where the patient has an inborn defect such as severe combined immunodeficiency or congenital neutropenia with defective stem cells, and also children or adults with aplastic anemia who have lost their stem cells after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood cells
  • As well as using stem cells from a donor's blood, cells from umbilical cord blood can also be used. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The basic cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the production and function of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cells produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these cells are short-lived, there needs to be a steady turnover of new blood cells and the maintenance of an HSC pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM-CSF stimulates production of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • a disorder characterised by the overproduction of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haemoglobin levels are usually reduced with normocytic and normochromic red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBMC layers contain mononuclear cells that have been depleted of red blood cells, leukocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a healthy adult person, approximately 1011-1012 new blood cells are produced daily in order to maintain steady state levels in the peripheral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythroid cells are the oxygen carrying red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In developing embryos, blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close proximity and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the failure of hematologic components to develop-white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets-the body's capabilities to fight infection, deliver oxygen, and form clots are all diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was first used as a treatment for some types of cancer but is now widely used as a therapy for various autoimmune diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These highly purified reagents are developed from an efficient human cell-based technology, and are excellent choices for your critical inflammation, cancer, stem cell, and antibody development research applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Additionally, high doses of total body irradiation can eradicate residual cancer cells in the transplant recipient, increasing the likelihood that the transplant will be successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marcel R.M. van den Brink (born 1960) is a Dutch hematologist and researcher who is an expert in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • After DNMT1 knockout in human cancer cells, these cells were found to retain their inherited methylation pattern, which suggests maintenance activity by the expressed DNMT3s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the genetic defect in DNA repair, cells from people with FA are sensitive to drugs that treat cancer by DNA crosslinking, such as mitomycin C. The typical age of death was 30 years in 2000. (wikipedia.org)