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  • endothelial cells
  • The homing process is initiated by tethering and rolling of HSPCs to endothelium mediated by the binding of selectins expressed on endothelial cells (E- and P-selectin) ( 9 , 10 ) to selectin ligands expressed on HSPCs (fig. S1), which occurs against the shear stress exerted by blood flow ( 7 , 11 - 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Soluble and transmembrane SCF is produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous G-CSF is a glycoprotein produced by monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • A niche is a subgroup of tissue cells and extracellular substrates that can indefinitely harbor one or more stem cells and control their self-renewal and progeny in vivo [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therapeutic regeneration of molecularly engineered and transplanted autologous stem cells in neurological and cardiovascular diseases due to inability of self-regeneration or repair of endogenous stem cells at sites of inflammation or disease at various stages of progress for regeneration of the damaged tissue depending upon the sites and nature of degeneration. (hoajonline.com)
  • Cells present in processed lipoaspirate tissue are used to treat patients. (google.es)
  • Methods of treating patients include processing adipose tissue to deliver a concentrated amount of stem cells obtained from the adipose tissue to a patient. (google.es)
  • Compositions that are administered to a patient include a mixture of adipose tissue and stem cells so that the composition has a higher concentration of stem cells than when the adipose tissue was removed from the patient. (google.es)
  • mixing said concentrated cell population that comprises adipose-derived stem cells with a second portion of unprocessed adipose tissue from said patient. (google.es)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , further comprising a disaggregation step, wherein said cell population that comprises adipose-derived stem cells contained in said removed first portion of adipose tissue is mechanically or enzymatically disaggregated from said mature adipocytes and connective tissue present in said first portion of adipose tissue that was removed from said patient prior to separation. (google.es)
  • An approachable human adult stem cell source for hard-tissue engineering. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vivo , the normal myocardial architecture has a unique three-dimensional extracellular matrix, offering cyclic mechanical stress (from rhythmic heart beating), electric stimulation, cell-cell signaling and topographical cues among the cardiomyocytes (CM). Upon injury, the normal architecture is disrupted and CMs are replaced by scar tissue and proliferating fibroblasts, which in turn results in compromise of the heart's structural integrity and adverse remodeling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muse cells are shown to home into the damage site and spontaneously differentiate into tissue-compatible cells according to the microenvironment to contribute to tissue regeneration when infused into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue (lipid cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells then integrate into the site of injury, replacing damaged tissue, and thus facilitate improved function of the organ or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast
  • Mast cells are the only terminally differentiated hematopoietic cells that express the c-Kit receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, the injection of SCF increases mast cell numbers near the site of injection by over 100 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, testicular seminoma, mast cell disease, melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, while inactivating mutations are associated with the genetic defect piebaldism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It matures into the megakaryocyte, erythrocyte, mast cell or myeloblast based on the presence of specific factors that encourage the cell to choose a lineage to follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • megakaryocyte
  • A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast) → megakaryoblast → promegakaryocyte → megakaryocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell eventually reaches megakaryocyte stage and loses its ability to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Tumors contain a minority population of cancer stem cells that maintain the tumor. (hoajonline.com)
  • In marked contrast to the cancer stem cells, the tumor cells without "stemness" have either no capacity or a markedly diminished capacity, to form new tumors. (hoajonline.com)
  • On the other hand, elimination or escape of Treg cells also causes the reactivation and induction of tumors and relapse. (hoajonline.com)
  • gene
  • IL2RG, RAG1 and/or RAG2 gene) into the genome of a cell for provision of proteins lacking or deficient in SCID. (patents.com)
  • Bioinformatic strategies were used to group time-ordered gene expression profiles generated from microarrays into signatures of quiescent and dividing stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also identified two genes that increase in both gene and protein expression during activation, and potentially represent new markers for proliferating stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These gene expression pattern and level may explain why Muse cells are pluripotent but without tumorigenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR/ABL induce cell adhesive and migratory abnormalities because the mutation will lead an abnormal response to chemokine SDF-1 MLL gene encode Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (HRX), which is a histone methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • The objective of the trial is to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in overall survival after PBSC versus marrow transplants from HLA compatible unrelated donors. (knowcancer.com)
  • In fact, fetal HSCs in cell culture are 6 times more sensitive to SCF than adult HSCs based on the concentration that allows maximum survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding results in a cascade of signals important for T-cell development within the thymus and survival within the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • umbilical
  • And umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been introduced as a more attractive HSC source for HSCT, because fetal stem cells in UCB are speculated to be more primitive in comparison to adult stem cells. (docplayer.net)
  • Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • While present in bone marrow, the place where CFU-GEMM is most common is in the umbilical cord between a mother and baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been discovered that these cells have a high replating efficiency, meaning that when taken from the umbilical cord and grown in culture, a high percentage of these cells are able to produce colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord i
  • Research has shown that CD34+ cells are relatively more in men than in women in the reproductive age among Spinal Cord Injury victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle degeneration, skin injury, stroke and spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs have been used to treat a variety of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, spinal cord injury, bone and cartilage repair, and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Cancer stem cellsand their susceptibility over their expected to be "downstream or progeny" cancer cells represent a target for therapeutic interventions to prevent latency and consequently relapse or metastasis of the malignant disease. (hoajonline.com)
  • Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and reconstitution: Different species and including primates and humans for studies are being used for development, localization, and therapeutic strategies. (hoajonline.com)
  • These data will be of use in attempts to recapitulate the HSC self renewal process for therapeutic expansion of stem cells, and our model may correlate with acquisition of self renewal characteristics by cancer stem cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therapeutic application of natalizumab, an anti-cd49d antibody, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with increased levels of circulating CD34+ progenitors. (docplayer.net)
  • Therapeutic window for treatment of cortical ischemia with bone marrow-derived cells in rats," Brain Research , vol. 1306, pp. 149-158, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • To help discover the therapeutic uses of these stem cells they are grown in laboratories or by using medication to stimulate new cell growth within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in the treatment of MS are still very much up to debate among stem cell researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, these cells are being investigated as the basis for a number of therapeutic applications, including possible treatments for diabetes and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes cells that naturally secrete the relevant therapeutic factors, or which undergo epigenetic changes or genetic engineering that causes the cells to release large quantities of a specific molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-renewal
  • Although a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) can generate sufficient primitive progeny to repopulate many recipients, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that maintain their potency or regulate their self renewal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g. progenitor cells, which cannot self-renew). (wikipedia.org)
  • transplant
  • Dr. Richman established the Bone Marrow Transplant Program at UC Davis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This is in part dependent on the type of cell transplanted, where the expression of gap junctions such as connexin-43 is essential not only for electromechanical integration, but has also been found to be protective against electrical instability post-transplant. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As Head of Hematology at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the University of British Columbia for 18 years (1985-2003) he engineered the building of one of the first and largest bone marrow transplant programs in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-7 could also be beneficial in improving immune recovery after allogenic stem cell transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • CD34+ cells may be isolated from blood samples using immunomagnetic or immunofluorescent methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • See " A Molecular Model of Blood Cell Renewal " , e349. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD34+ cells in the blood and marrow of natalizumab-treated patients expressed less of the stem cell marker CD133, were enriched for erythroid progenitors (CFU-E) and expressed lower levels of adhesion molecules. (docplayer.net)
  • Red blood cell substitutes. (pubfacts.com)
  • G-CSF stimulates the production of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recognition of his research accomplishments and leadership in moving basic science discoveries in stem cell biology into the clinic, he was elected President of the International Society of Cellular Therapy (1995-1997), Treasurer of the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (1995-2002) and President of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (1999-2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to blood cells through the process of haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs can replenish all blood cell types (i.e., are multipotent) and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, megakaryocytes are 10 to 15 times larger than a typical red blood cell, averaging 50-100 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • These multipotent stem cells live in the marrow sinusoids and are capable of producing all types of blood cells depending on the signals they receive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the cell may form platelet ribbons into blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This crosses the bone marrow barrier to the blood and is consumed in the lung by alveolar macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cells are normally present in the blood at low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the drugs affect new blood cells that are being made by the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the bone marrow is the manufacturing center of blood cells, the suppression of bone marrow activity causes a deficiency of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition can rapidly lead to life-threatening infection, as the body cannot produce leukocytes in response to invading bacteria and viruses, as well as leading to anaemia due to a lack of red blood cells and spontaneous severe bleeding due to deficiency of platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CFU-GEMM cell is capable of differentiating into white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, all of which are normally found in circulating blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • When erythropoietin (EPO) is present, red blood cell production from the CFU-GEMM will be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the CFU-GEMM cell is a very early ancestor of the mature cells of the blood, it is not normally found in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because macrocytosis usually precedes a low platelet count, patients with typical congenital anomalies associated with FA should be evaluated for an elevated red blood cell mean corpuscular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the failure of hematologic components to develop-white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets-the body's capabilities to fight infection, deliver oxygen, and form clots are all diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the next 10 years, over 50% of patients presenting haematological abnormalities will have developed pancytopenia, defined as abnormalities in two or more blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms caused by bone marrow damage Bruising, spotting: the reason is lack of platelets, it is very common in BAL patients, most of patients die due to the Anemia: Because the decline of hematopoietic function, need blood transfusion therapy Persistent fever, infection prolonged healing: Diffuse hemorrhage: also called Septicemia, which is dangerous and might lead to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia: reduction metrocytes that could produce red blood cells, resulting in a lack of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent fever, infection prolonged healing: Most of the white blood cells are leukemia cells, no normal function, leading to decreased immunity, susceptible to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following observation of the symptoms, the patients need to get complete blood counts and a bone marrow examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parvovirus B19 inhibits erythropoiesis by lytically infecting RBC precursors in the bone marrow and is associated with a number of different diseases ranging from benign to severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • granulocyte colony
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • exogenous
  • The best hope for regeneration of these permanently damaged cells is optic stem cell therapy combined with continued drug treatments or other exogenous biomaterial implants depending upon the relevant ophthalmological condition. (hoajonline.com)
  • Any attempt to introduce exogenous cells for regenerative purposes should take into consideration the hostile environment, the lack of normal myocardial structure and the potential for the introduction of cells in a microenvironment where normal cardiomyocyte fibers are replaced by scar. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • fetal liver
  • In mammalian embryology, the first definitive HSCs are detected in the AGM (aorta-gonad-mesonephros), and then massively expanded in the fetal liver prior to colonising the bone marrow before birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute myeloid
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • BrdU labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are proposed as indices of neurogenesis, while quantitative measurements of spontaneous movements will reveal psychomotor components of immobilization. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Often, the spatial distribution of ligands and receptors on a cell membrane governs cellular interactions and intracellular signaling ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • He then went to Dalhousie University, completing his MSc in cell physiology under Dr. Gordon Kaplan on A Radiological Investigation of Two Cellular Enzyme Systems of Yeast (1964). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell therapy can be defined as therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • From these experiments, we also show that proliferation and cell identity play a role in the number of iPSCs per input cell number. (jove.com)
  • Scientists report N-methylhemeanthidine chloride not only selectively inhibits acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. (hematopoiesisnews.com)
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable haematological malignancy characterised by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, we investigated the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated PTTG1 knockdown on the proliferation of the murine myeloma plasma cell line 5TGM1 in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, patients with high PTTG1 expression exhibited increased expression of cell proliferation-associated genes including CCNB1 , CCNB2 , CDK1 , AURKA , BIRC5 and DEPDC1 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • By suppressing the unregulated proliferation of T and B cells, MSCs can potentially minimize and control on-going damage to the CNS. (wikipedia.org)
  • When compared to other similar chemicals, UM171 allowed for more HSC proliferation and lower apoptotic cell number compared to controls, along with a higher number in multipotential progenitors like CFU-GEMM. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine bone
  • Among them, CD18 and its ligand ICAM-1 are particularly intriguing because CD18 and its heterodimer binding chains CD11a and CD11b were correspondingly expressed in ex vivo-expanded EPCs isolated from rat and murine bone marrows. (ahajournals.org)
  • Working under the supervision of Bruce (AACR Award), and in association with Till and McCulloch and a vibrant group of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, Eaves completed his PhD in Medical Biophysics at the University of Toronto with a thesis entitled Studies on the Control of Murine Bone Marrow Function (1974). (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFU-GEMM is a colony forming unit that generates myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are thus also called common myeloid progenitor cells or myeloid stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that eosinophils do not derive from the common myeloid progenitor in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the adjacent image, CFU-GEMM is the scientific name for the "common myeloid progenitor" that is responsible for forming all the cells of the myeloid lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Certain cytokines such as IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, LIF, erythropoietin, and thrombopoietin all stimulate the maturation of megakaryocytic progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCs can also produce an immunomodulating effect by stimulating the maturation of antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • As the HUMARA assay is based on the epigenetic state of cells, the underlying genetic determinants of the clonal expansion remained to be uncovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • This manuscript illustrates a protocol for efficiently creating integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood using episomal plasmids and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • A few years ago, the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) ushered in a new era in biomedicine. (jove.com)
  • In current terminology, CFU-S refers to the pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into all types of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into nearly all cells, i.e. cells derived from any of the three germ layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • A novel approach to characterize the microstructural response of the myocardium to ischemia and cell therapy, using serial diffusion tensor MRI tractography of the heart in vivo , is presented. (celltherapynews.com)
  • In vivo , the BMP2/PDLSC group showed significantly more new bone formation and re-osseointegration in peri-implantitis defects compared to the other groups. (celltherapynews.com)
  • T cells deactivated by allogeniec umbilical cord blood stem cells ex vivo T cells infused back to patient to protect regenerating islet cells Patient monitored for changes in diabetes status. (docplayer.net)
  • Recent advances in cell surface and intracellular marker identification and single-cell analyses led to greater resolution and high-throughput ex-vivo quantification. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • It also stops the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune system and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • GM-CSF haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic functions have pro-inflammatory and immune regulatory potential to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases and tumours. (springer.com)
  • G-CSF is produced by endothelium, macrophages, and a number of other immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why cord blood cells are currently used to treat blood and immune system related genetic diseases, cancers, and blood disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemocytoblast
  • The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast) → megakaryoblast → promegakaryocyte → megakaryocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • This model has received support from studies showing subpopulations of blood cells harboring initiating but not late somatic mutations in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and AML. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process involves sucking out the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell and injecting it into an oocyte that has had its nucleus removed Using an approach based on the protocol outlined by Tachibana et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantify
  • Marrow adipocytes are difficult to isolate and quantify because they are interspersed with bony and hematopoietic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, qualitative measurements of MAT have relied on bone histology, which is subject to site selection bias and cannot adequately quantify the volume of fat in the marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • A volumetric method to identify, quantify, and localize MAT in rodent bone has been recently developed, requiring osmium staining of bones and μCT imaging, followed by advanced image analysis of osmium-bound lipid volume (in mm3) relative to bone volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • compartment
  • We have previously identified pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 ( Pttg1 ) as a gene that is significantly upregulated in the haematopoietic compartment of the myeloma-susceptible C57BL/KaLwRij mouse strain, when compared with the myeloma-resistant C57BL/6 mouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • femur
  • Histologic sections demonstrating Marrow Adipocytes Representative distal femur histologic section of a 16-week old healthy C57BL/6 mouse demonstrating a typical quantity of marrow adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • The medulla is specialized to allow thymocytes to undergo additional rounds of negative selection to remove auto-reactive T cells from the mature repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapies
  • This self-regeneration capacity gives rise to alternatives to classical cellular therapies whereby administration of growth factors such as Thymosin β4 for cell activation and migration are solely necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiresorptive therapies like risedronate or zoledronate also decrease MAT while increasing bone density, supporting an inverse relationship between bone quantity and MAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Metcalf D. Hematopoietic cytokines. (springer.com)
  • The stem cell will follow a specific lineage depending on the presence of certain growth factors and cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of studies conducted by Carow, Hangoc, and Broxmeyer in 1993 reveal that the CFU-GEMM can be classified as a stem cell due to its high replating efficiency in the presence of certain growth factors and cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • The cortex is the location of the earliest events in thymocyte development, where T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymocytes that reach the medulla have already successfully undergone T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection, and have been exposed to a limited degree of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a surface protein able to recognize short protein sequences (peptides) that are presented on MHC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most genes, which have a stable sequence in each cell which expresses them, the T cell receptor is made up of a series of alternative gene fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to create a functional T cell receptor, the double negative thymocytes use a series of DNA-interacting enzymes to clip the DNA and bring separate gene fragments together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome of this process is that each T cell receptor has a different sequence, due to different choice of gene fragments and the errors introduced during the cutting and joining process (see section on V(D)J recombination for more information on TCR rearrangement). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular disadvantage in the rearrangement process is that many of the combinations of the T cell receptor gene fragments are non-functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • To eliminate thymocytes which have made a non-functional T cell receptor, only cells that have successfully rearranged the beta chain to produce a functional pre-TCR are allowed to develop beyond the DN3 stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)