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  • recombinant
  • We ask in this study whether recombinant VEGF alone at relevant concentrations would cause significant alterations in DC development in vivo in otherwise healthy animals, which cell populations would be most affected, and what role other factors may play in the effects mediated by VEGF. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Unlike TNF and Fas ligand (FasL), which can cause life-threatening toxic effects when used systemically ( 7 , 8 ), recombinant TRAIL protein has been shown to induce cell death in many types of tumor and transformed cells, but not in normal cells, in culture and xenograft animal models ( 5 , 6 , 9 , 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, initial xenograft studies using recombinant human soluble forms of the TRAIL protein showed TRAIL-induced apoptosis of human cancer cells transplanted into immunodeficient mice without toxicity to the normal tissues of the mice bearing these xenograft tumors ( 9 , 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Modulation of human cord blood progenitor cell growth by recombinant human interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in serum-supplemented and serum-free medium. (openrepository.com)
  • myeloid cells
  • Continuous VEGF infusion, at rates as low as 50 ng/h (resulting in serum VEGF concentrations of 120 to 160 pg/mL), resulted in a dramatic inhibition of dendritic cell development, associated with an increase in the production of B cells and immature Gr-1 + myeloid cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Primary tumors recruit myeloid cells, which are the precursors to immune cells, in order to allow the tumor cells to avoid detection by the immune system as they metastasize, and thus allows the metastasis to flourish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the primary tumors have entered the bloodstream, myeloid cells that have been recruited by the tumor protect the cancer cells from detection by the immune system, which would otherwise be more likely to be effective in halting metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given their important role not only in protecting the growing metastasis from immune system attacks, but also in enabling extravasation, myeloid cells are a key factor in the development of the pre-metastatic niche, and thus eventually in promoting metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary tumor, in an attempt to evade detection by the immune system, uses chemokines in order to increase recruitment of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to secondary organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • 8 VEGF binds to hematopoietic progenitor CD34 + cells through one of the VEGF-specific receptors (Flt-1) and inhibits the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This is the first study to characterize systematically the effect of growth factor combinations across multiple oxygen levels on the ex vivo expansion of cord blood CD34 hematopoietic cells utilizing clinically approvable reagents and methodologies throughout. (edu.au)
  • The proteolytic cleavage generates transmembrane and soluble forms of Notch ligands.We examined the effect of a soluble Notch ligand, human Jagged-1, on human cord blood (CB) CD34 + cells, under serum-deprived conditions, using soluble human Jagged-1-immunoglobulin G1 chimera protein (hJagged-1). (springer.com)
  • A human homo-logue of the Drosophila developmental gene, Notch , is expressed in CD34 + hematopoietic precursors. (springer.com)
  • tumor
  • Defective function of dendritic cells (DC) in cancer has been recently described and may represent one of the mechanisms of tumor evasion from immune system control. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have previously shown in vitro that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by almost all tumors, is one of the tumor-derived factors responsible for the defective function of these cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Tumor cells appear to have developed mechanisms to avoid immune system recognition and control, and among these is the inhibition of antitumor immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 12 13 VEGF stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and plays an important role in the formation of tumor neovasculature. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 14 We have shown that anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies block the negative effects of tumor cell supernatants on DC maturation in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It was not known whether exogenous or overexpression of TRAIL in a syngeneic system could induce tumor cell death while leaving normal tissue cells unharmed. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show for the first time that TRAIL overexpression in hematopoietic cells leads to significant inhibition of syngeneic tumor growth in certain tumor lines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This approach may be used further to identify important molecules that regulate the sensitivity of tumor cells to TRAIL-induced cell death in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Three mechanisms are currently known by which lymphocytes deliver cell-mediated cytotoxicity to target cells, such as viral-infected and tumor cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These include Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis ( 1 ), perforin-granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity ( 2 ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis ( 3 , 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These studies do not directly address the tumor selectivity of TRAIL-induced apoptosis due to the fact that the human and mouse forms of TRAIL share only 65% amino acid sequence identity and thus may behave differently in vivo and also because human TRAIL does not kill mouse cells with the same efficacy as human cells ( 5 , 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such a niche provides favorable conditions for growth, and eventually metastasis, in an otherwise foreign and hostile environment for the primary tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors metastasize to particular organs due to the migration of hematopoietic bone marrow cells expressing VEGFR1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1) and stromal cells to these particular sites prior to the arrival of primary tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells form pre-metastatic niches in order to prepare the secondary organ for the arrival of the primary tumor cells and allow these cells to gather and more easily colonize the organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to metastasize, tumor cells should arrive at an organ with an environment conducive to their growth, such as a pre-metastatic niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • The creation of this environment is accomplished by factors from the primary tumor that alter the structure of the secondary organ in order to allow cells from the primary tumor to more easily colonize the secondary organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells release factors that cause bone cells to resorb and therefore increase the rate of metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are often tumor cell deposits found in organs without a metastasis, indicating that metastases do not always colonize the tissues that they enter after leaving the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid progenitor cells, recruited at various different stages in their cell cycle, are believed to constitute much of the pre-metastatic niche, as they can protect the tumor cells from the standard immune response as the cancer cells attempt to colonize the pre-metastatic niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, cancer cells from the primary tumor can be used to induce inflammation in the future site of the pre-metastatic niche in the secondary organ, which is similar to the immune response created by an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the large presence of immune cells allows the pre-metastatic niche to ward off attacks by the immune system and therefore allow the tumor to metastasize without inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune suppression, combined with hypoxia and ECM, among other processes, are essential steps in allowing a primary tumor to metastasize, as they allow tumor cells to grow in a foreign and hostile environment without being destroyed by the typical response of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastasis has typically been condensed into a few simple steps, namely that the tumor cells leave the primary tumor and travel to secondary organs via the circulatory system in an attempt to invade the foreign environment of the pre-metastatic organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since tumor growth is often difficult in a new and relatively hostile environment, metastasis had been considered by many to be an inefficient process, despite its high mortality rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Rat stem-cell factor induces splenocytes capable of regenerating the t" by Eugene S. Medlock, Russell T. Migita et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Interleukin 33 (IL-33) induces IL-9 expression and secretion in T cells, which was confirmed by the results obtained in mice by using Human in vitrosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Jagged1 (JAG1) is one of five cell surface proteins (ligands) that interact with 4 receptors in the mammalian Notch signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor-cell
  • He demonstrated critical roles for oncogene cooperativity, for example that the distinction between progenitor cell expansion and maturation relies on cooperation between endogenous signalling and transcription pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • As a result, there is an increasing use of cord blood as a source of stem cells for transplants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In another study, myeloablative therapy followed by infusion of unrelated umbilical cord blood cells was performed in 57 adult patients with high-risk, hematological disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LOI represents an early epigenetic event in leukemogenesis that was found in blood from subjects with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome but not in blood or hematopoietic progenitor cells from normal individuals ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with androgens and hematopoietic (blood cell) growth factors can help bone marrow failure temporarily, but the long-term treatment is bone marrow transplant if a donor is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because macrocytosis usually precedes a low platelet count, patients with typical congenital anomalies associated with FA should be evaluated for an elevated red blood cell mean corpuscular volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the failure of hematologic components to develop-white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets-the body's capabilities to fight infection, deliver oxygen, and form clots are all diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at birth, blood count is usually normal, macrocytosis/megaloblastic anemia, defined as unusually large red blood cells, is the first detected abnormality, often within the first decade of life (median age of onset is 7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelofibrosis is a form of myeloid metaplasia, which refers to a change in cell type in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow, and often the two terms are used synonymously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone pain Bruising and easy bleeding due to inadequate numbers of platelets Cachexia (loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue) Enlargement of both the liver and spleen Fatigue Gout and high uric acid levels Increased susceptibility to infection, such as pneumonia Pallor and shortness of breath due to anemia In rarer cases, a raised red blood cell volume Cutaneous myelofibrosis is a rare skin condition characterized by dermal and subcutaneous nodules. (wikipedia.org)
  • JAK2 mutations are significant because JAK2 plays a role in controlling production of blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decrease in hematopoietic tissue impairs the patient's ability to generate new blood cells, resulting in progressive pancytopenia, a shortage of all blood cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic growth factor is a group of glycoproteins that causes blood cells to grow and mature (Haematopoiesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood-derived growth factors have been used in medicine and oral surgery for more than twenty years with an abundance of scientific data supporting its role in soft and hard tissue regenerations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.34 US fl oz) per tube harvested), no risk of rejection or disease transmission (using your own blood), high noble type of healing (autogenous growth factors and hematopoietic stem cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • A fibrin clot packed with blood-derived growth factors, extra cellular matrix and hematopoietic stem cells is fabricated and implanted into the gums above the area of gum recession. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD135 is important for lymphocyte (B cell and T cell) development, but not for the development of other blood cells (myeloid development). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo expansion
  • Ex vivo expansion has the potential to provide a safe, effective means of increasing cell numbers. (edu.au)