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  • induce
  • Helminth parasites and aluminum hydroxide (Alum) have adjuvant properties that can induce potent Th2 cell differentiation, and several helminth products have been identified that appear capable of inducing an innate Th2-type immune response that includes activation of dendritic cells, eosinophils, and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages as well as other innate immune cell populations ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Some of the original descriptions of these cytokines as well as more recent reports have noted the capacity of exogenous IL-25, IL-33, or helminth infection to induce the proliferation of a novel non-T/non-B cell population ( 6 , 9 , 12 , 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • antigens
  • Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes , macrophages , dendritic cells , natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helminths down-modulate the host immune response to unrelated antigens, 2- 4 a property that could be beneficial in Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • mediate
  • Studies, mostly in animal models of human disease, are providing insight into how helminths mediate protection from these conditions. (jimmunol.org)
  • host
  • There are many helminth species inhabiting different regions of their host. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, though, we did find that infection protects the host from ear swelling due to type III (immune complex-mediated) hypersensitivity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Crowding in the first intermediate host does not affect infection probability in the second host in two helminths. (mpg.de)
  • Currently, research aims to trace how helminths manipulate host immune cell populations, identify molecular mediators and receptor pathways involved in the host-pathogen dialogue, and design new interventions for control of infection in both human and animal contexts. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Macrobiota - helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Helminths have evolved to secrete dozens if not hundreds of molecules that exquisitely turn down the host immune system. (evmedreview.com)
  • Mechanisms by which several of these helminth-derived immunosuppressive "drugs" function have been elucidated, and generally appear to be adapted for specific host species. (evmedreview.com)
  • Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • organisms
  • In this review, Professor Rook discusses these possibilities in the context of evolution, suggesting that it might be possible to exploit these parasitic organisms (such as helminthes) or their components to stimulate the immune system and develop new therapies. (www.nhs.uk)
  • As infectious disease has become less prevalent, immune disorders such as autoimmune, allergic, atopic and inflammatory conditions have become more prevalent.3 A significant part of the etiology of this increase in immune dysregulatory disease may be the very fact that infectious organisms like helminths are less frequently present to stimulate robust regulatory responses. (ndnr.com)
  • The co-evolution of helminths and the organisms they colonize can be traced back far deeper than the evolution of mammals, to the beginnings of immune systems. (evmedreview.com)
  • From this view, the immune system can be seen as having evolved as an interface with symbiotic organisms more so than as a defense against invading organisms, although defense against invading organisms was almost certainly a part of that interface. (evmedreview.com)
  • allergic
  • Similar to other helminths, L. sigmodontis induces systemic immunomodulation ( 5 - 7 ), and a previous study demonstrated that L. sigmodontis can inhibit the development of allergic disease when infection is established prior to allergic sensitization ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • genes
  • Cryptic haplotype-specific gamete selection yields offspring with optimal MHC immune genes. (mpg.de)
  • cells
  • Furthermore, we aim to investigate altered migratory behaviour of Tg -specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells as well as Tg -harbouring immune cells. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high Ascaris-IgE levels had dysregulated immune cells, high viral loads with more immune activation. (sun.ac.za)
  • Here, we characterize these non-T/non-B lineage-negative cells at rest, after administration of exogenous IL-25 and IL-33, and during the course of infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis . (pnas.org)
  • B Cells Produce the Tissue-Protective Protein RELMĪ± during Helminth Infection, which Inhibits IL-17 Expression and Limits Emphysema. (nih.gov)
  • naturally
  • For example, decades of work with gnotobiotic (microbe-free) animals consistently demonstrate that the painstaking separation of a mammal from its associated microbiome results in an underdeveloped immune system that is a mere shadow of its naturally occurring counterpart. (evmedreview.com)
  • reactions
  • The role of chitin in these phenomena will be reviewed, highlighting the immune reactions that may be induced in mammals by this natural polymer. (degruyter.com)