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  • chromosomes
  • In the cell in the centre of the image, condensed chromosomes (purple) have aligned and attached to the spindle (green). (wellcomecollection.org)
  • The kinetochores of isolated HeLa cell chromosomes attached to an electron microscope specimen grid, fixed in formaldehyde, and stained with alcoholic phosphotungstic acid are visible as dark, preferentially stained structures distinct from the chromatin with which they are associated. (pnas.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells the SAC serves as the central surveillance mechanism to ensure chromosomes are being passed on to the next generation in a reliable manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells were used in the development of the polio vaccine, lead to the first clone of a human cell, helped in the discovery that humans have 46 chromosomes, and were used to develop in vitro fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • They did not interfere with the expression of human papillomavirus oncogenes integrated in the HeLa cell genome, but they did induce strong G1 arrest and result in the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • A later study suggested that Agrobacterium attaches to and genetically transforms several types of human cells by integrating its T-DNA into the human cell genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are caused by the insertion of a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for 'transfer DNA', not to be confused with tRNA that transfers amino acids during protein synthesis, confusingly also called transfer RNA), from a plasmid, into the plant cell, which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.000.000 sites per cell, making it the most common endogenous base lesion in the mammalian genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, this study highlights the fact that the ribonucleotides can be highly deleterious to the mammalian cell, causing genome instability, and that the RNaseH2 is a critical enzyme for ensuring integrity of genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubulin
  • This MOA was also confirmed experimentally: the cyano-substituted heteroaryles disrupted the actin and the tubulin networks in HeLa cells and inhibited cellular migration. (springer.com)
  • growth
  • Controversies Due to the unusual growth capabilities of the HeLa cell line, it contaminated many cell cultures and ruined years of research, as discovered by Stanley Gartler in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gey is also noted to be one of the first to document cell division and growth on film. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few of the medical advances achieved through the TCA include the clone growth of rodent cells, the development of time lapse cinematography, and the electron microscopic examination of cell structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome is characterized by cellular radiation sensitivity, growth retardation, developmental delay, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, increased disposition to leukemia, variable degrees of immunodeficiency and reduced number of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracts
  • This study is also very similar to our method of study in that the methanol and aqueous extracts of the samples which were investigated in cytotoxicity way revealed that among the samples, Anabaena ISC 90 and Anabaena ISC 55 samples of the methanol extract and Anabaena 88 sample of the aqueous extract had a greater impact on HeLa cell lines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of the different extracts on HeLa cells was studied over a 3-h period. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the obtained results of the cytotoxicity testing of methanol extracts on Hela cell line unraveled that the highest cytotoxicity relates to Anabaena 55 at the dose of 30 mg / mL. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • compounds
  • A computational analysis was performed that compared the antiproliferative activities of our compounds in 13 different tumor cell lines with those of compounds listed in the National Cancer Institute database. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, a second in silico investigation revealed that the tumor cells that are sensitive to the cyano-substituted compounds show differences in their expression of locomotion genes compared with that of insensitive cell lines, thus corroborating the involvement of the cytoskeleton. (springer.com)
  • Possible plant compounds that initiate Agrobacterium to infect plant cells: Acetosyringone and other phenolic compounds alpha-Hydroxyacetosyringone Catechol Ferulic acid Gallic acid p-Hydroxybenzoic acid Protocatechuic acid Pyrogallic acid Resorcylic acid Sinapinic acid Syringic acid Vanillin To transfer the T-DNA into the plant cell, A. tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion mechanism, involving the production of a T-pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Our model was also in agreement with experiments showing that the number of HSF molecules in a HeLa cell is roughly 100 times greater than the number of stress-activated heat-shock element sites, further confirming the model's ability to reproduce experimental results not used in model calibration. (nih.gov)
  • researchers
  • And while the cells became commercialized (researchers can buy a vial of them for $250) Lacks' family has lived without healthcare and in poverty. (howstuffworks.com)
  • For a long time, researchers who were curious enough to ask were told that HeLa cells were named after 'Helen Lane' or 'Helen Larson. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Henrietta Lack's cells are popular among researchers because, unlike normal human tissue, they divide indefinitely in a laboratory setting and are stable enough to survive shipping. (howstuffworks.com)
  • None of the researchers working on HeLa cells ever took the time to educate the family about what was really going (RadioLab, 2010). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • concentrations
  • Bottom row: HeLa cells were treated with low (left) or high (right) concentrations of staurosporine and assayed for cytotoxicity with the EarlyTox Cell Integrity Kit. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Under conditions of high concentrations of either salts, substrates or any solute in the supernatant, water is drawn out of the cells through osmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Current research also suggests that osmotic stress in cells and tissues may significantly contribute to many human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely distributed in normal tissues, and overexpressed in multidrug-resistant cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1951
  • Named after a cancer patient, the cells were taken from Lacks' tissue samples and grown by a researcher named Dr. George Gey in 1951. (howstuffworks.com)
  • PTEN
  • The exact role of this 173-amino acid extension is not yet known, either causing PTEN to be secreted from the cell, or to interact with the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • capabilities
  • The ImageXpress® Pico system does more than imaging-it offers unparalleled analysis capabilities that simplifies image analysis for cell-based assays. (moleculardevices.com)
  • occurs
  • Ribonucleotide accumulate in RNaseH2 null cells as a consequence of incorporation by DNA polymerases: The authors show that the ribonucleotide incorporation also occurs in metazoans, these lesions are harmful to mammalian cells, and their removal is required for mouse embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • HeLa cells have been used extensively around the world in many different fields of research including cancer research, immunology and vaccine development. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • Readers learn not just about HeLa cells and John Moore but also about the development of polio vaccine, HIPAA, the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital cancer studies, and the history of Johns Hopkins hospital. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He wanted doctors to try to cut out a piece of the cancer in his liver to grow a new cell line for cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Lig4 deficiency in the mouse causes a progressive loss of haematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow cellularity during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensitivity of haematopoietic stem cells to lig4 deficiency suggests that lig4-mediated NHEJ is a key determinant of the ability of stem cells to maintain themselves against physiological stress over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrest
  • The latter interaction is essential for kinetochore localization of Bub1 and its function in cell cycle arrest induced by spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • Cell lines are used in all kinds of ways, such as studying the effects of diseases or developing medications and vaccines, and play an invaluable role in medicine today. (howstuffworks.com)
  • HeLa cells were the first cell lines to be grown in the lab and are still used in countless biomedical research projects today. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Agrobacterium
  • A common transformation protocol for Arabidopsis is the floral dip method: inflorescence are dipped in a suspension of Agrobacterium, and the bacterium transforms the germline cells that make the female gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • To be virulent, the bacterium must contain a tumour-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid or pTi), of 200 kb, which contains the T-DNA and all the genes necessary to transfer it to the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • For example I found out that the test my daughter had to confirm a diagnosis of Williams Syndrome was made possible by HeLa cells ," she says. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, we used H2 ER [alpha]-GFP transfected into HeLa cells to test D3 binding by visualizing that D3 increases the translocation of ER [alpha] to the nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • humans
  • In humans Bub1 accumulates gradually during G1 and S phase of the cell cycle, peaks at G2/M, and drops dramatically after mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • These cells proved to be very unusual in that they could grow in culture medium that was constantly stirred using the roller drum (a technique developed by Gey), and they did not need a glass surface to grow, and therefore they had no space limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells, as it turned out, could float on dust particles and could be transferred on unwashed hands or used pipettes, and therefore end up in other cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • C )MS/MS/MS spectrum of the neutral loss precursor ion from B . Abundant peptide bond fragmentation permitted the unambiguous identification of this peptide from the protein cell division cycle 2-related protein kinase 7, with a phosphorylated Ser residue marked by an asterisk. (pnas.org)
  • Tumors
  • By altering the hormone balance in the plant cell, the division of those cells cannot be controlled by the plant, and tumors form. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Recent advances in single-cell omics and other techniques are revealing variation at genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptomic levels. (the-scientist.com)