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  • theoretically
  • As most of these are energy-absorbing processes, most nuclides of elements heavier than zirconium are theoretically unstable to spontaneous fission, although in many cases, the half-life for this is too long to have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mass
  • In this study, an in vivo stable isotope-mass spectrometric technique was used to measure the turnover, or dynamicity, of MTs in brains of living animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Advances in mass spectrometry during the 1970s and early 1980s reduced the amount of isotope required, which made it feasible to apply the method to larger animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rona first coined the terms "isotope labels" and "tracers" during this study, noting that the velocity of diffusion depended on the mass of the nuclides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though contained in a footnote, this was the basis for the development of the mass spectrographic and heavy water studies later performed by other scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • The study of kinetic isotope effects can help the elucidation of the reaction mechanism of certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that SN1 reactions typically lead to large secondary kinetic isotope effects, approaching to their theoretical maximum at about 1.22, while SN2 reactions typically yield primary kinetic isotope effects that are very close to or less than unity. (wikipedia.org)