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  • electrically heated
  • However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • liquid-cooled engines
  • The more complex circulating liquid-cooled engines also ultimately reject waste heat to the air, but circulating liquid improves heat transfer from internal parts of the engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid-cooled engines are able to vary the size of their passageways through the engine block so that coolant flow may be tailored to the needs of each area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid-cooled engines usually have a circulation pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even after considering and applying all the measures, the uniform cooling of cylinders is still difficult to achieve on air-cooled engines as compared to the liquid-cooled engines. (ukessays.com)
  • cylinders
  • In a reciprocating engine, it is that portion of the cycle when the pistons move from TDC (top dead center) to BDC (bottom dead center) and the fuel-air mixture is drawn into the cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • This number is multiplied by the number of cylinders in the engine, to determine the total displacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • the engine block is made short and compact by setting the cylinders into two banks of three or four cylinders each (Figures 1.9 and 6.2). (coursehero.com)
  • EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small vehicles such as motorcycles could easily use CO2 cylinders (Scuba tanks) to power piston engines, for example. (newmars.com)
  • Along with friction forces, an operating engine has pumping losses, which is the work required to move air into and out of the cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • valve
  • sixteen-valve automobile engine produces a peak power output of 100 k\\'. e 2001 General Motors Corporation L'sed with permission of G.\l Media Archnes. (coursehero.com)
  • The valve house contains valves to control the water flow into the power house during normal conditions. (hubpages.com)
  • By 1973, an EGR valve controlled by manifold vacuum opened or closed to admit exhaust to the intake tract only under certain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chrysler's "Coolant Controlled Exhaust Gas Recirculation" system of 1973 exemplified this evolution: a coolant temperature sensor blocked vacuum to the EGR valve until the engine reached normal operating temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the EGR valve was controlled, in part, by vacuum drawn from the carburetor's venturi, which allowed more precise constraint of EGR flow to only those engine load conditions under which NOx is likely to form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, backpressure transducers were added to the EGR valve control to further tailor EGR flow to engine load conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fuel system of a hit-and-miss engine consists of a fuel tank, fuel line, check valve and fuel mixer. (wikipedia.org)
  • coolant
  • The water may be used directly to cool the engine, but often has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, that can chemically damage the engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the fixed parts of the engine, such as the block and head, are cooled directly by the main coolant system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first engines relied on thermo-syphon cooling alone, where hot coolant left the top of the engine block and passed to the radiator, where it was cooled before returning to the bottom of the engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • generator
  • A power house houses the turbine and the generator. (hubpages.com)
  • A wave disk engine or wave disk generator is a type of pistonless rotary engine being developed at Michigan State University and Warsaw Institute of Technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Müller's team hoped to have a vehicle-sized 25 kilowatt (33 hp) wave disc engine/generator ready by the end of 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • A WHRB is different from a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) in the sense that the heated medium does not change phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. The exhaust gas treatment system of claim 1, further comprising an energy storage device that is selectively connected to the generator by a vehicle bus switch. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The exhaust gas treatment system of claim 3, wherein the generator is connected to the energy storage device if the generator is operated at the target voltage mode. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1870s Belgian inventor Zénobe Gramme invented a generator powerful enough to produce power on a commercial scale for industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • propulsion
  • A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jet propulsion only gained practical applications with the invention of the gunpowder-powered rocket by the Chinese in the 13th century as a type of firework, and gradually progressed to propel formidable weaponry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to providing propulsion, airliners employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. (mechgin.com)
  • hydro elect
  • The basic requirement of a hydro electric power plant is a good reservoir where large quantity of water is stored during flood season and used during dry season. (hubpages.com)
  • Generally hydro electric power plants have longer life. (hubpages.com)
  • In 1870 a hydro electric power station was designed and built by Lord Armstrong at Cragside, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel
  • The technical field generally relates to fuel nozzles for use in gas turbine engines. (google.com)
  • It also generally relates to a method of cooling fuel nozzles for gas turbine engines. (google.com)
  • Oftentimes, fuel flowing in the fuel nozzles remove some of the heat therein and prevent their temperature from rising during a high power operation. (google.com)
  • One example is the hot-bulb engine which used a hot vaporization chamber to help mix fuel with air. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Diesel engines, combustion begins when the fuel is injected into pre-compressed air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest attempts at airbreathing jet engines were hybrid designs in which an external power source first compressed air, which was then mixed with fuel and burned for jet thrust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fuel is delivered to the engine by means of the fuel system. (studymode.com)
  • The fuel system must be self-contained and efficient so that it will properly energize the engine and will take up as little space as possible necessary to its mechanical functioning. (studymode.com)
  • The fuel system is critical in storing and delivering the aviation fuel to the engine that is needed for it to run. (studymode.com)
  • These engines use simple injectors which are basically very precise spring-loaded valves which will open and close at a specific fuel pressure. (studymode.com)
  • Sliwa's quest for better fuel economy goes beyond the engine and aerodynamics. (roadking.com)