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  • Titan's
  • How aerosols form in Titan's haze. (esa.int)
  • Cassini image of Titan's haze. (esa.int)
  • The role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the formation of aerosols in Titan's haze. (esa.int)
  • We can finally confirm that PAHs play a major role in the production of Titan's lower haze, and that the chemical reactions leading to the formation of the haze start high up in the atmosphere, ' comments Manuel López-Puertas from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) in Granada, Spain. (esa.int)
  • This finding is surprising: we had long suspected that PAHs and aerosols were linked in Titan's atmosphere, but didn't expect we could prove this with current instruments, ' he adds. (esa.int)
  • Clouds
  • The larger-than-global-averaged uncertainties in the DT product over this event were due to both an overly zealous set of masks that mistook heavy smoke plumes for clouds and/or inland water, and also an aerosol model developed for generic global aerosol conditions. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • algorithm
  • Combining the knowledge gathered on key processes with satellite-derived information on oceanic and meteorological parameters, an algorithm will be developed to produce a Sea-Spray Source Function (S3F) which will subsequently be used in large scale models to quantify the impacts of marine aerosols. (europa.eu)
  • The MODIS Dark Target (DT) aerosol algorithm, developed for global applications, significantly underestimated regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) during this episode. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Thus, using this new less-absorbing aerosol model, cloud masking based on results of the MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm, and relaxed thresholds on both inland water tests and upper limits of the AOD retrieval, we created a research algorithm and applied it to 80 appropriate MODIS granules during the event. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • These results will influence the future development of the global DT aerosol algorithm. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • significantly
  • Comparison with the HTAP Phase 1 (HTAP1) assessment reveals that from 2000 to 2010, the long-range transport from Europe to East Asia has decreased significantly by a factor of 2-10 for surface aerosol mass concentration due to the simultaneous emission reduction in source region and emission increase in the receptor region. (atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net)
  • ammonium
  • This shows a) particle number size distributions and b) fractional contributions of organics, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, and chloride to the PM1 mass during the haze episode from 06:00 to 15:00 LT, Jan. 12, 2013. (innovations-report.com)
  • This shows a) particle number size distributions and b) fractional contributions of organics, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, and chloride to the PM1 mass during the haze episode from 06:00 to 15:00. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study showed that NOx reductions in the San Joaquin Valley as the result of implemented controls have dramatically decreased the very large fraction of total aerosol that is ammonium nitrate," Pusede said. (phys.org)
  • Pusede and Cohen used this NOx constraint to interpret trends in wintertime PM2.5 over the last decade in San Joaquin Valley where a large portion of the total aerosol mass is ammonium nitrate . (phys.org)
  • ratios
  • Compared to OC (6.7 μg m−3) and EC (2.0 μg m−3) in the non-haze days, higher levels of both OC (15.6 μg m−3) and EC (7.7 μg m−3) were observed in the haze days as expected, but with lower OC/EC ratios in the haze days (2.4) than in non-haze days (4.6). (deepdyve.com)
  • Spray
  • In general conversation, aerosol usually refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. (aiha.org)
  • increases
  • By investigating the visibility response, we find that the long-range transport from the Europe and RBU region increases the number of haze events in China by 0.15 % and 0.11 % respectively, and the North China Plain and southeast China receives 1-3 extra haze days. (atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net)
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (enn.com)
  • smoke
  • Satellite aerosol products are one important data source used by a wide range of disciplines in general studies of fire and smoke. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • investigations
  • There were six principal scientific investigations: imaging and spectroscopy of SL9 prior to impact (PI: Hal Weaver, STScI), optical and near-UV WFPC-2 imaging of Jupiter (PI: Heidi Hammel, MIT), WFPC-2 imaging study of stratospheric hazes on Jupiter (PI: Bob West, JPL), UV imaging of Jupiter (PI: John Clarke, Univ. (stsci.edu)
  • mass
  • The real-time analysis demonstrated that OA accounted for approximately 80 % of NR-PM1 mass during the wildfire haze period. (earthobservatory.sg)
  • Typically, higher inorganic mass fractions lead to increased aerosol water uptake and light-scattering ability in elevated relative humidity. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • measurements
  • The team of researchers will take daily measurements of trace gases and aerosols the city emits (known as the Sacramento urban plume) under relatively well defined and regular weather conditions. (enn.com)
  • respectively
  • The estimated SOA yields were 12.6 ± 5.3 and 16.7 ± 6.7 μg m −3 for non-haze and haze days, respectively, accounting for 9.6 and 8.7% of the corresponding PM 2.5 concentrations, which were slightly underestimated. (springer.com)
  • study
  • As a first approach of quantifying aerosol deposition predictions under non-reacting flow conditions, this study identifies important parameters under various flow conditions and compares predicted aerosol deposition quantities to experimentally measured data. (springer.com)
  • important
  • In fire models, the accurate prediction of aerosol and soot concentrations in the gas phase and their deposition thicknesses in the condensed phase is important for a wide range of applications, including human egress calculations, heat transfer in compartment fires, and forensic reconstructions. (springer.com)
  • effects
  • Aerosol-Coud Indirect Effects in Midlatitude Cyclones-Insights from Remote Sensing Observations and Convection-Permitting Global Aquaplanet Simulations. (confex.com)
  • affect
  • There have also been suggestions that aerosols over the North Atlantic effect storms over the North Atlantic, and that aerosols in the monsoon region over South Asia can affect circulation around the whole of the world. (fark.com)
  • From all this the scientists hope to piece together how the aerosols (and the various sub types of aerosols) affect the climate. (enn.com)
  • This amount of missing AOD can skew the perception of the severity of the event, affect estimates of regional aerosol forcing, and alter aerosol modeling and forecasting that assimilate MODIS aerosol data products. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • optical
  • Meanwhile, the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) characterised the optical properties of the photochemical aerosols from 150 km altitude to the surface. (esa.int)
  • The aerosols' optical properties can be reproduced by the condensation of hydrogen cyanide close to 80 km, ethane condensation close to the tropopause (44 km), and methane condensation from the tropopause down to 8 km. (esa.int)
  • data
  • Aerosols in this lower haze have been studied using data from the descent of the Huygens probe, which reached the surface in 2005, but their origin remained unclear. (esa.int)
  • lower
  • These reactions eventually lead to the production of carbon-based aerosols, large aggregates of atoms and molecules that are found in the lower layers of the haze that enshrouds Titan, well below 500 km. (esa.int)