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  • antibody
  • We present a simple model for predicting the relationship between the intermolecular cross-linking constant and the monovalent hapten-antibody binding constant. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_6138048, title = {Thermodynamic model of binding of flexible bivalent haptens to antibody} author = {Dembo, M, and Goldstein, B} abstractNote = {Studies by Wilder et al. (osti.gov)
  • Sometimes the small-molecule hapten can even block immune response to the hapten-carrier adduct by preventing the adduct from binding to the antibody, a process called hapten inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hapten and antibody production for a sensitive immunoassay determining a human urinary metabolite of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. (cdc.gov)
  • Six ELISAs with both a heterologous hapten structure and a heterologous hapten configuration (cis/trans or trans/cis) between antibody and coating antigen showed a high sensitivity for the target analyte. (cdc.gov)
  • The x-ray crystal structures of the sulfide oxidase antibody 28B4 and of antibody 28B4 complexed with hapten have been solved at 2.2-angstrom and 1.9-angstrom resolution, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition to demonstrating that the active site of antibody 28B4 does indeed reflect the mechanistic information programmed in the aminophosphonic acid hapten, these high-resolution structures provide a basis for enhancing turnover rates through mutagenesis and improved hapten design. (rcsb.org)
  • Haptens are substances with a low molecular weight such as peptides, small proteins and drug molecules that are generally not immunogenic and require the aid of a carrier protein to stimulate a response from the immune system in the form of antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hapten is covalently linked to the primary antibody by succinyl imidesters or conjugated IgG Fc-specific Fab sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Carrier proteins such as DT stimulate T-helper cells which co-operate with B-cells to enable them to respond to the hapten by providing accessory signals. (wordnik.com)
  • In this study a series of thiol-reactive caged fluorescent haptens, i.e., bromobimanes, were deployed in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and proteomics to identify possible hapten targets in proteins in human skin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Control of small molecule hapten epitope densities on antigenic carrier proteins is essential for development and testing of optimal conditions for vaccines. (rti.org)
  • Yet, accurate determination of epitope density can be extremely difficult to accomplish, especially with the use of small haptens, large molecular weight carrier proteins, and limited amounts of protein. (rti.org)
  • The method was developed using a (+)-methamphetamine (METH)-like hapten with a sulfhydryl terminus, and two prototype maleimide activated carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunocyanin monomers of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. (rti.org)
  • Instead, it attaches to certain proteins of the skin, where it acts as a hapten, leading to a type IV hypersensitive reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergens, which may be different for different individuals, combine with epithelial-derived proteins, forming haptens which bind with Langerhans cells in the mucosa, which in turn present the antigen on their surface to T lymphocytes, sensitizing them to that antigen and causing them to produce many specific clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONJUGATE
  • This convenient and simple method could be useful during several stages of vaccine development including the optimization and monitoring of conditions for hapten-protein conjugations, and choosing the most effective epitope densities for conjugate vaccines. (rti.org)
  • Aggregates remain immunogenic, but limit the ability to conjugate haptens, and are difficult to manipulate in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • We have demonstrated the ability of a series of murine T cell hybridomas to deliver an antigen-specific, B cell I-region-restricted helper signal in the generation of specific PFC responses to protein-bound haptens. (rupress.org)
  • The results suggest that the generation of PFC responses to protein-bound haptens require at least three nonspecific factors in addition to an antigen/Ia specific helper signal. (rupress.org)
  • Hapten 5 was suitable as a coating antigen rather than as an immunogen since it had a different geometry. (cdc.gov)
  • More importantly, we have demonstrated direct evidence that PA is a hapten accounting for the diastereoisomeric BP antigen formation in albumin isolated from the blood of patients receiving penicillin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • conjugates
  • Exposure of normal mouse spleen cells in vitro to highly 125 I-labeled dinitrophenyl (DNP)-protein carrier conjugates specifically inactivated cells able to mount an immune response to that hapten after in vivo challenge. (rupress.org)
  • The method was validated by immunochemical analysis of the hapten-BSA conjugates, and least-squares linear regression analysis of epitope density values determined by the new radiometric method versus values determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (rti.org)
  • acid
  • The first researched haptens were aniline and its carboxyl derivatives (o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have undertaken detailed mass spectrometric studies to define the mechanism and protein chemistry of hapten formation from benzylpenicillin (BP) and its rearrangement product, benzylpenicillenic acid (PA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • carrier
  • The deletion was hapten specific and independent of the radioactive carrier to which the hapten was bound. (rupress.org)
  • DNP-binding cells were inactivated by radioactivity that was not part of the hapten, but was solely confined to the carrier moiety. (rupress.org)
  • usually only the hapten-carrier adduct can do this. (wikipedia.org)
  • his first wife got ms after they were married a few yrs. could he be a hapten carrier and luck have it his first wife and i had the same blood type. (thisisms.com)
  • responses
  • Using hapten-primed B cells depleted of both T cells and macrophages (Mphi) we have now demonstrated a requirement for three nonspecific factor preparations to substitute for spleen Con A SN in the elicitation of optimal PFC responses. (rupress.org)
  • exposure
  • to get to my point, do these haptens come from only humans or animals too or exposure to say cigarette smoke, chemicals, mold etc? (thisisms.com)
  • protein
  • To overcome that, Dr. Janda attaches a hapten - which is either a bit of the drug itself, or a synthetic version of it - to a larger protein that acts as a platform. (wordnik.com)
  • Helper signals in the plaque-forming cell response to protein-bound haptens. (rupress.org)
  • small
  • of the binding of Fab' fragments to small haptens have shown that the cross-linking constant (the equilibrium constant for binding an additional Fab' fragment to a hapten-Fab' complex) is strongly dependent on the length of the hapten. (osti.gov)
  • chemistry
  • Tetrafluorophenyl (TFP) esters chemistry typically used to attach fluorophores or haptens to the primary amines of biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding site
  • In particular we used the model to obtain the dependence of the cross-linking constant on the length of th hapten, the depth to which the hapten fills th Fab' binding site, and the size of the Fab' fragment. (osti.gov)
  • From their data we determined the values of two parameters which we took to be unknown in the theory, the size of the Fab' fragment and the depth to which the hapten fills the Fab' binding site. (osti.gov)