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  • histones
  • The N-terminal amino acid sequences of histones H3 and H4 are shown along with the positions of specific methylation of lysines (in red) and arginines (in green) sites and the known enzymatic machinery responsible for the corresponding lysine modifications. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that Mut11p interacts with conserved components of H3K4 methyltransferase machineries, and an affinity-purified Mut11p complex(es) methylates histones H3, H2A, and H4. (plantcell.org)
  • demethylase
  • Lysine-specific demethylase 1 [LSD1/AOF2/BHC110/KDM1A/SU(VAR)3- the first demethylase to be characterized ( 45 ), was found to specifically demethylate mono- and dimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me and H3K4me2, respectively), but not H3K4me3, in vitro ( 17 , 33 , 41 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • epigenetic mark
  • H3-K4 methylation may serve as a global epigenetic mark in euchromatin and mediates activated transcription. (epigentek.com)
  • Together, our results suggest functional differentiation between dimethyl H3K4 and monomethyl H3K4, with the latter operating as an epigenetic mark for repressed euchromatin. (plantcell.org)
  • The "maintenance" DNMT complex, DNMT1-UHRF1, recognizes hemimethylated CpGs and efficiently restores symmetrical CpG methylation at most genomic locations, consistent with the notion that in cells with unimpaired DNMT activity, DNA methylation is generally a stable and heritable epigenetic mark ( 1 ) (Figure 1 , left). (frontiersin.org)
  • HMTs
  • The latter results suggest that Trr, Trx, and Ash1 may play more specific roles in regulating key cellular targets and pathways and/or act as global H3K4 HMTs earlier in development. (genetics.org)
  • aberrant
  • As PRC2-mediated aberrant methylation of H3K27 has recently been targeted for therapy in other diseases, it represents an actionable target for a substantial percentage of medulloblastoma patients with aggressive forms of the disease. (springer.com)
  • Efforts are ongoing to target this aberrant epigenetic regulation for therapeutic benefit and clinical trials combining agents that inhibit DNA CpG methylation with agents that inhibit histone deacetylase have yielded promising results. (aacrjournals.org)
  • proteins
  • Higher metazoans possess additional H3K4 methylases, the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) class of proteins, which act through distinct complexes similar to COMPASS (reviewed by Eissenberg and Shilatifard 2010 ). (genetics.org)
  • Pathways of DNA methylation and demethylation mediated by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • complexes
  • Human MLLs (MLL1-4) and hSet1 (hSet1A and B) are found in COMPASS like complexes capable of methylating H3K4 as well. (nih.gov)
  • global
  • Our results suggest that dSet1 acts as a "global" or general H3K4 di- and trimethyl HMT in Drosophila . (genetics.org)
  • complex
  • In human, H3K4 methylase complex contains core subunits (shown in red) similar to that of COMPASS and complex specific subunits (shown in black). (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, (A) in the absence of H2B monoubiquitination, COMPASS can still interact with the transcribing Pol II via the Paf1 complex and monomethylate H3K4. (nih.gov)
  • We present biochemical evidence that dSet1 interacts with members of a putative Drosophila COMPASS complex and genetic evidence that these members are functionally required for H3K4 methylation. (genetics.org)
  • (C) During DNA replication, unmodified C is incorporated into the newly synthesized strand of DNA, but the hemimethylated structure is recognized by UHRF1 in the DNMT1/UHRF1 complex and symmetrical CpG methylation is restored by DNMT1. (frontiersin.org)
  • mark
  • This dualistic nature of the H3K4 methyl mark has thus far remained unresolved. (plantcell.org)
  • The discovery of histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) that belong either to the amine oxidase or the Jumonji C-terminal domain (JmjC) families have now established lysine methylation as a dynamic mark that can be written, read and erased. (mskcc.org)