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  • action
  • In one approach, a single signaling pathway is "vertically" targeted, with drugs inhibiting multiple steps in a signaling cascade: For example, pretreatment of A549 lung carcinoma cells with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor PX-866, which strongly potentiates the action of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 6 On cell activation, GDP-bound Rac under resting condition may be converted into GTP-Rac through the action of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • stabilize
  • These structural arrangements provide interaction sites that can interact with effectors and guanine factors in order to stabilize and signal the hydrolysis of GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • M-Ras also weakly stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and ERK2 activity, but modestly stimulates trans-activation from different nuclear response elements which bind transcription factors, such as SRF, ETS/TCF, Jun/Fos, and NF- kB/Rel. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • More currently, Ras family members such as R-RAS, R-RAS2 and also R-RAS3 have also been implicated as main factors in triggering neural transformation, with R-RAS2 as the most significant element. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) is known as a critical pathogenic factor in the progression of end-stage renal disease and in the development of cardiovascular complications related to end-stage renal disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • protein
  • In parallel with this experiment, Hall showed that the presence of Rac, another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, Rho-dependent response is stimulated by the action of growth factors on Rac protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about the transcriptional regulation of EFS, but several transcriptional regulators for EFS have been proposed based on consensus binding sites in its promoter region for ATF (Activating transcription factor), NF-κβ, NF-κβ1, GATA-3, C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid receptors α and β, and p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • The appropriate GDP/GTP exchange cycle of Rab3A is required for Ca2+-regulated exocytosis to occur, and interaction of the GTP-bound form of Rab3A with effector molecule(s) is widely believed to be essential for this process. (umbc.edu)
  • growth
  • The inhibition of endogenous Rac function by mutants N17rac and V12rac1 prevented growth factor-induced membrane ruffling. (wikipedia.org)