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  • Fibroblast
  • Dissociated primary cultures from rat telencephalon at different developmental stages were used to study the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) on Otx2, Dlx1, and Emx1, three homeobox genes expressed in different regions of the developing mammalian forebrain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, interactions of autophagy with crucial developmental pathways such as Wnt, Shh (Sonic Hedgehog), TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor) have been reported. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Macrophages are an important source of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, arriving in mammalian wounds 48-96 h after injury, where they clear dead cells, release proinflammatory cytokines, and subsequently produce factors that dampen inflammation and stimulate angiogenesis, fibroblast migration, and replication ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • neurons
  • Lindsay, R. M. (1988) Nerve growth factors (NGF, BDNF) enhance axonal regeneration but are not required for survival of adult sensory neurons. (springer.com)
  • Lindsay, R. M., Lockett, C., Sternberg, J., and Winter, J. (1989) Neuropeptide expression in cultures of adult sensory neurons: modulation of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide levels by nerve growth factor. (springer.com)
  • Muldberry, P. K. (1994) Neuropeptide expression by newborn and adult rat sensory neurons in culture: effects of nerve growth factor and other neurotrophic factors. (springer.com)
  • Shu, X. and Mendell, L. M. (1999) Nerve growth factor sensitizes the response of adult rat sensory neurons to capsaicin. (springer.com)
  • Aguayo, L. G. and White, G. (1992) Effects of nerve growth factor on TTX-and capsaicin-sensitivity in adult rat sensory neurons. (springer.com)
  • Martin, D. P., Wallace, T. L., and Johnson, E. M. Jr. (1990) Cytosine arabinoside kills postmitotic neurons in a fashion resembling trophic factor deprivation: evidence that a deoxycytidine-dependent process may be required for nerve growth factor signal transduction. (springer.com)
  • regulate
  • GSK3 signaling is also known to regulate gene expression via controlling the functions of many transcription factors, suggesting that GSK3 may be an important regulator of gene transcription supporting axon growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, little is known about the transcription factors and the targeted genes they control that specifically regulate axon growth downstream of neurotrophic factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuron
  • High-content screening identified miR-135a and miR-135b as potent stimulators of axon growth and cortical neuron migration in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • By performing a miRNome-wide functional screen, our studies identify miR-135s as stimulators of axon growth and neuron migration, and show that intravitreal application of these miRNAs facilitates CNS axon regeneration following nerve injury in adult mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • lethality
  • In some cases, the lethality starts already from the four-cell stage, but knockout of different autophagy genes can cause lethality at later embryonic and even neonatal stages. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • proliferation
  • beta-catenin mediates insulin-like growth factor-I actions to promote cyclin D1 mRNA expression, cell proliferation and survival in oligodendroglial cultures. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cells
  • Nakano M, Arisawa K, Yokoyama S et al (2011) Characteristics of novel chicken embryonic stem cells established using chicken leukemia inhibitory factor. (springer.com)
  • Horiuchi H, Tategaki A, Yamashita Y et al (2004) Chicken leukemia inhibitory factor maintains chicken embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state. (springer.com)
  • Contribution of human embryonic stem cells to mouse blastocysts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The sensory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea comprises mechanosensory hair cells that are arranged into four ordered rows extending along the length of the cochlear spiral. (biologists.org)
  • Essential role of chromatin remodeling protein Bptf in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1991 ) Promoter traps in embryonic stem cells: a genetic screen to identify and mutate developmental genes in mice. (biologists.org)
  • Although infiltrating immune cells play a major role in determining the variable outcome of mammalian wound repair, little is known about the modulation of immune cell signaling in efficiently regenerating species such as the salamander, which can regrow complete body structures as adults. (pnas.org)
  • 2005, "Efficient Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Definitive Endoderm," Nature Biotechnology, 23(12):1534-1541. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2002, "Growth Inhibitors Promote Differentiation of Insulin-Producing Tissue from Embryonic Stem Cells," PNAS, vol. 99(25)16105-16110. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2003, "Role of ERas in Promoting Tumour-Like Properties in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells," Nature, 423:541-545. (patentgenius.com)
  • Despite the increasing number of vertebrate HSFs over the past few years, and the notion that each imparts unique physiological functions in the cells of complex organisms (reviewed in Wu, 1995 ), little specific knowledge is available about the in vivo biological roles of individual mammalian HSFs. (embopress.org)
  • Induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer stem cells (CSCs) can occur as the result of embryonic pathway signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are increasingly thought to play a major role in breast cancer growth and the formation of metastases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the presence of stimulatory signaling (that is, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch, Wnt, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β) primary tumor cells may undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process where cells suppress E-cadherin expression and lose their tight membrane junctions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oncogene
  • In this study, growth arrest specific 1 (Gas1), a tumor growth suppressor oncogene, was identified as a novel modulator of the cell apoptosis of reactive astrocytes in primary culture and the injured substantia nigra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • yeast
  • The biogenesis of mammalian (and yeast) autophagosomes also involves two ubiquitin-like molecules, Atg12 and LC3 (light chain 3)/Atg8 [ 2 , 4 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • tissue
  • The soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family are the molecular bases of the induction of bone formation and postnatal bone tissue morphogenesis with translation into clinical contexts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abstract
  • Björklund, Anders 1982-03-01 00:00:00 Abstract: Dopaminergic innervation of the caudate nucleus in adult rats can be partially restored by the grafting of embryonic substantia nigra into the overlying parietal cortex with concomitant compensation of certain behavioral abnormalities. (deepdyve.com)
  • axons
  • To induce axon extension, the cellular machinery at the nerve growth cone controls the assembly of cytoskeletal proteins and membrane components into new axons. (frontiersin.org)
  • axon growth
  • In contrast, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is limited, in part by a reduced intrinsic capacity for axon growth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, insight into the intrinsic control of axon growth may provide new avenues for enhancing CNS regeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we performed one of the first miRNome-wide functional miRNA screens to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) with robust effects on axon growth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intriguingly, both these developmental effects of miR-135s relied, in part, on silencing of KLF4, a well-known intrinsic inhibitor of axon growth and regeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Although many features of mammalian cytokine/chemokine signaling are retained in the axolotl, they are more dynamically deployed, with simultaneous induction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers within the first 24 h after limb amputation. (pnas.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of Hedgehog (Hh), Wnt, Notch, or transforming growth factor-β leads to the upregulation of a group of transcriptional factors that drive EMT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assembly
  • During the past decades, extensive studies have shown how extracellular factors (neurotrophic or guidance), through their receptors and downstream signaling mediators, control axon assembly or pathfinding locally at the growth cone ( Lowery and Van Vactor, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)