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  • mouse
  • Interestingly, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicate a similar expression pattern for GDF-9B, the rat ortholog of a mouse GDF-9 like factor for which we recently reported the partial amino acid sequence. (nih.gov)
  • developmental
  • Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is an idiopathic phenomenon, occurring in previously intact joints, with no apparent initiating factor such as joint injury or developmental abnormalities. (medsci.org)
  • risk
  • In patients after ACS, GDF-15 concentration is associated with the risk of MACE including MI and stroke independent of traditional risk factors and risk markers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several studies have shown that the association of rs143383 polymorphism in the promoter region might be a risk factor of OA,[ 26 , 28 - 33 ] but other groups did not confirm these results. (medsci.org)
  • (ahajournals.org)
  • activation
  • This mechanism acts through the growth factor receptors subunits BMPR1A, BMPR2 and ACVR2A and the activation of SMAD1-SMAD5-SMAD8 complex and MAPK14/p38 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)