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  • cDNA
  • Murine IGFBP-4 (mIGFBP-4) cDNA (a kind gift from Dr. S. Drop, Rotterdam, the Netherlands) was cloned in either direction into the pCI-neo vector to express mouse IGFBP-4 sense or antisense RNA under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lefty, a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF beta) superfamily of proteins, was originally discovered in the Hamada lab at the Osaka University using deletion screening of cDNA libraries in P19 embryonic carcinoma cells to find clones that did not differentiate when induced to differentiate using retinoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Publications] 岡田太: 'Transforming growth factor betal (TGF-betal) produced in tumor tissue after chemotherapy acts as a lymphokine-activated killer attractant. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Some people with AML may experience swelling of the gums because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the gum tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue Cell 20: 899-908. (springer.com)
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • Myelofibrosis is a form of myeloid metaplasia, which refers to a change in cell type in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow, and often the two terms are used synonymously. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decrease in hematopoietic tissue impairs the patient's ability to generate new blood cells, resulting in progressive pancytopenia, a shortage of all blood cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was cloned from tissue harvested from skin cells taken from a hunted deer from central Texas. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • I'm sure it isn't done every day of the week due to the ethical concerns, but I couldn't see how cloning embryos would present any difficulty at all. (slashdot.org)
  • There is still an issue with yield - almost all of the embryos cloned will die soon after. (slashdot.org)
  • After two weeks of culture CMR-I myoblast clones were collected, aggregated, and transplanted into the prospective dorsal thigh region of young quail embryos. (biologists.org)
  • precursors
  • CML is a cancer initiated by a mutant gene called BCR-ABL in blood forming stem cells that leads to an expansion of white blood cells and their precursors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • while the leukemic cells themselves are derived from white blood cell precursors, they have no infection-fighting capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes, cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying mechanism involves replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemia cells, which results in a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormal megakaryocytes stimulate other cells, the fibroblasts, to produce collagen in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of the myeloproliferative disorders, diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced at some stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is extramedullary hematopoiesis, i.e. blood cell formation occurring in sites other than the bone marrow, as the haemopoetic cells are forced to migrate to other areas, particularly the liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Cell lines needed for studies of tumor suppressor biology will be created and maintained, and the technology will be validated by comparison with conventional approaches. (grantome.com)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clone (cell biology) Nossal, G. J. V. & Lederberg, J. (1958). (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • B cells that respond most avidly to antigen are preferentially allowed to proliferate and mature, a process known as clonal selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemotherapy agents, specifically epipodophyllotoxins and anthracyclines, have also been associated with treatment-related leukemias, which are often associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities in the leukemic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • I have this vision of the scientists keeping the cell cultures separate by placing them into separate waffle holes. (slashdot.org)
  • Interleukin 13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) chain is highly expressed on some tumor cell lines and primary cell cultures. (rupress.org)
  • We and others have reported that IL-13Rα2 chain is expressed on many human cancer cell lines and primary cell cultures including glioblastoma, AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma ( 13 - 16 ), and fibroblast cell lines ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the heterogeneous nature of animal organs, primary cell cultures potentially contain more than one type of cell. (springer.com)
  • Interpretation of data arising from studies using these mixed cultures can lead to difficulties, because it may not be possible to ascertain which of the cell types present may have responded to a given treatment. (springer.com)
  • While a number of procedures have been used to enrich the cell population of interest, many scientists have resorted to cloning of cells in order to insure the purity of cell cultures. (springer.com)
  • CMR-I myoblast clones are morphologically different from other chick myoblast clone types and can readily be identified in living cultures. (biologists.org)
  • novel
  • This work suggests a novel mechanism for overcoming cancer stem cell resistance to therapy that may prevent relapse and progression. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These results establish a novel function of a cytokine receptor chain and further suggest that the presence of this chain on tumor cells by itself may play a key role in tumorigenicity. (rupress.org)
  • leukemia
  • An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In leukemia stem cells, however, overexpression of ADAR1 enhances the missplicing of RNA, which leads to greater self-renewal and therapeutic resistance of malignant stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If we can block the capacity of leukemia stem cells to use ADAR1, if we can knock down that pathway, maybe we can put stem cells back on the right track and stop malignant cloning. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This shows chronic myeloid leukemia blood cells. (labspaces.net)
  • overexpression
  • Publications] 守内哲也: 'Overexpression of the HOX4A (HOXD3) homerobox gene in human erythroleukemie HEL cells results in altered adhesive properties. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To determine the functional significance of overexpression of this chain, we stably transfected IL-13Rα2 chain in human breast (MDA-MB-231) and pancreatic (PANC-1) cancer cell lines that naturally do not express this chain. (rupress.org)
  • Overexpression of this gene has been shown to increase tumor growth and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • To rule out the biological potential of IGFBP-4 and to address the question of whether IGFBP-4 also exerts inhibitory actions during malignant growth of cells that are independent of IGF, we stably transfected IGF-sensitive (LS1034 and Isreco-2) or IGF-resistant (Isreco-1) colon cancer cell lines (9 , 10) with mouse IGFBP-4 (mIGFBP-4) expression vectors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Everyone remembers Dolly, no-one really notices the hundreds of other sheep clones that didn't survive. (slashdot.org)
  • Satellite cells isolated from sheep skeletal muscle are not homogeneous. (springer.com)
  • tumor growth
  • However, several studies have reported that in addition to immune mechanism, in some situations, inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and macrophages play a dominant role in the control of tumor growth ( 24 , 25 ). (rupress.org)
  • factors
  • Furthermore, the NK-like cells readily depleted IL 2 from the medium, either during growth at 37 degrees C or by absorption at 4 degrees C. It is concluded that at least some cytotoxic cell lines require both IL 2 and other, as yet unidentified, spleen cell-derived factors for long-term growth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2) What essential factors allow continuous propagation of T-cell clones? (springer.com)
  • The V617F mutation appears to make hematopoietic cells more sensitive to growth factors that need JAK2 for signal transduction, which include erythropoietin and thrombopoietin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • The capabilities engendered by this new method for cell cloning will lead to new insights into the control of cancer cell growth and survival. (grantome.com)
  • Since it was first isolated by Nobel Laureates Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956, numerous biological processes involving NGF have been identified, two of them being the survival of pancreatic beta cells and the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • High affinity binding between proNGF, sortilin, and p75NTR can result in either survival or programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study results indicate that superior cervical ganglia neurons that express both p75NTR and TrkA die when treated with proNGF, while NGF treatment of these same neurons results in survival and axonal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the withdrawal of NGF induces apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells, signifying that NGF may play a critical role in the maintenance and survival of pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • germinal centers
  • Plasma cell output from germinal centers is regulated by signals from Tfh and stromal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes, the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody Production
  • The initial step of recognition activates a complex series of cellular events requiring some mechanism of cell-cell interactions and communi- cations, eventually leading to antibody production. (springer.com)
  • malignant cells
  • It is typically slow-growing and often not diagnosed until its later stages when there can be a sudden, dramatic increase in malignant cells, known as blast crisis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • expression
  • In Isreco-2 cells, which lack endogenous IGF expression but are IGF sensitive, colony formation was also reduced by IGFBP-4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selective Expression of Flt3 within the Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cell Compartment. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, glucocor-ticoid receptor in SC-3 cells is a suppressor at a physiological concentration of dexamethasone in terms of gene expression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • genes
  • Molecularly engineered cells created to study the impact of specific genes on cell physiology are fundamental tools for biomedical discovery. (grantome.com)
  • This technology is needed for the study of tumor suppressor and other genes that regulate cell growth. (grantome.com)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Therefore, specific parameters of malignant progression of colon carcinoma cells are distinctly affected by IGF-dependent and IGF-independent effects of IGFBP-4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulrich purified the insulin mRNA from this sample and cloned it into a vector that he inserted into E coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • This pathway normally regulates stress-induced cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Administration of Type I IFN has been shown experimentally to inhibit tumor growth in animals, but the beneficial action in human tumors has not been widely documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulrich was the first person to clone a human gene, insulin, into E coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroid cells
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • apoptotic process
  • The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • It is involved in the regulation of adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. (mybiosource.com)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The simultaneous inhibition of these targets therefore leads to both reduced tumor vascularization and cancer cell death, and ultimately tumor shrinkage. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Feedback inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor mediated Ras-MAPK signaling and ERK activation. (genecards.org)
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • chromatin
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • GH secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I levels were reduced in female Tg rats. (jci.org)
  • dorsal
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • stem cells
  • In the 1990s, Wong-Staal's research focused on gene therapy, using a ribozyme "molecular knife" to repress HIV in stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • normally
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Western blot analysis using RAG2 mouse mAb against RAG2(AA: 350-527)-hIgGFc transfected HEK293 (1)cell lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)