Loading...
  • lymphoid
  • Lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors with down-regulated megakaryocyte-erythroid (MkE) potential are restricted to cells with high levels of cell-surface FLT3 expression, whereas HSCs and MkE progenitors lack detectable cell-surface FLT3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that mouse Flt3 expression initiates in fully multipotent progenitors because in addition to lymphoid and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors, FLT3(-) Mk- and E-restricted downstream progenitors are also highly labeled when Flt3-Cre fate mapping is applied. (ox.ac.uk)
  • and c) innate lymphoid cells (also major physiological sources of interleukin 5) that produced increased amounts of interleukin 5 in response to stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization classifies these disorders into a) Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 (i.e. high eosinophil blood counts caused by mutations in the eosinophil cell line of one of these three genes), 'b) Chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and c) the Idiopathic hypereosinophiic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CLP then goes on to differentiate into more committed lymphoid precursor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature DCs have ability to present antigens in the lymphoid tissues and prime, activate and expand effector immune cells with unique functions and cytokine profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) differentiate from lymphoid progenitor cells in the lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The SBDS gene may not be required for neutrophil maturation but may act to maintain survival of granulocyte precursor cells. (medscape.com)
  • 1 CpG island hypermethylation can coexist with global or gene-specific demethylation in malignant cells, 2-5 resulting in transcriptional inactivation ("silencing") if it occurs in a promoter region. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Inactivation of TSGs by hypermethylation thus provides a novel therapeutic opportunity based on restoration of gene function and growth control in malignant cells by induction of demethylation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Used to study apoptosis, cell signaling pathways and gene expression. (fishersci.com)
  • Plasticity of immune cells can be influenced by the variability of cellular traits, including gene expression and DNA methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Janus Kinase 2 gene , called JAK2 for short, provides instructions to cells for making the JAK2 protein . (labtestsonline.org)
  • Non-metastatic cells 4, protein expressed in, also known as NME4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the NME4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first nm23 gene, nm23-H1 (NME1), was isolated based on its reduced expression in a highly metastatic murine melanoma cell line and was proposed to be a metastasis suppressing gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an inhibitory receptor found on peripheral mononuclear cells, including NK cells, T cells, and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, Choi showed that blast cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells displayed common gene expression of both hematopoietic and endothelial precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precise mechanism of action is not yet clear, but it appears that hydroxycarbamide increases nitric oxide levels, causing soluble guanylyl cyclase activation with a resultant rise in cyclic GMP, and the activation of gamma globin gene expression and subsequent gamma chain synthesis necessary for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production (which does not polymerize and deform red blood cells like the mutated HbS, responsible for sickle cell disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are most powerful antigen presenting cells for the induction of antigen specific T cell response and because of this function DCs are the crucial component of vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an active cellular immunotherapy, which involves obtaining antigen-presenting autologous dendritic cells from the patient following a leukapheresis procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • These cells include a polynuclear degranulated basophil and myeloblasts, with signs of abnormal maturation. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In this way, DCs' precursors are isolated from the patient through leukapheresis and after maturation/stimulation of these precursors ex vivo, fully mature DCs are injected back into the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates,created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer cell-mRNA or tumor derived exosomes (TDEs) by the stimulation.There is also possibility of aditonal co-stimulating with cytokine "cocktails" to assure strong maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • As the embryo requires rapid oxygenation due to its high mitotic activity, these islands are the main source of red blood cell (RBC) production via fusing endothelial cells (ECs) with the developing embryonic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mononuclear
  • We examined p15 and p16 methylation status in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with high-risk MDS during treatment with decitabine, using a methylation-sensitive primer extension assay (Ms-SNuPE) to quantitate methylation, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and bisulfite-DNA sequencing to distinguish individually methylated alleles. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These studies suggest that the dis-regulated overproduction of interleukin 5 by blood mononuclear cells is an underlying cause of the eosinophilia found in at least some families with this disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mononuclear phagocyte system is also a somewhat dated concept trying to combine a broad range of cells, and should be used with caution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mononuclear phagocyte system is part of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • There are 2 types of hematopoiesis that occur in humans: Primitive hematopoiesis - blood stem cells differentiate into only a few specialized blood lineages (typically isolated to early fetal development). (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • The fundamental driver of these hypereosinophilic (or uncommonly eosinophilic) disorders is the mutation which increases the proliferation, survival, and further mutation of cells descendant from the originally mutated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Here, by staining tissues for a novel surface maker of Th2/Tc2, the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule CRTH2, which is expressed on Th2 cells, we show that CRTH2(+) Th2 cells and CRTH2(+) Tc2 cells are significantly increased at the materno-fetal interface (implantation site) in decidua. (jove.com)
  • Since CRTH2 is a chemoattractant receptor for PGD(2) and mediates PGD(2)-dependent migration of blood Th2 cells, our findings suggest that Th2 and Tc2 cells may be recruited to the materno-fetal interface, at least in part in a PGD(2)-mediated manner. (jove.com)
  • Sickle-cell disease (increases production of fetal hemoglobin that then reduces the tendency of sickle cells to sickle, as well as reducing white blood cells that contribute to the general inflammatory state in sickle cell patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the treatment of sickle-cell disease, hydroxycarbamide increases the concentration of fetal hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It increases slightly in the fetal stage, and then it is expressed highly in the adult erythrocyte precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, in the fetal and adult precursors, not all precursor stages display HOXA9 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies
  • BM-1 and BM-2 antibodies react with early precursor and mature forms of human myeloid cells. (novusbio.com)
  • However, it may be useful as part of a panel to demonstrate B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, since the malignant cells in this condition are often CD43 positive, and may be difficult to stain with other antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • B and T cells utilize genetic recombination to generate a highly diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins and T-cell surface receptors, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibitory receptors regulate the immune response to prevent lysis of cells recognized as self. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • A generalized marrow dysfunction with an abnormal bone marrow stroma (in terms of its ability to support and maintain hematopoiesis) is thought to be present in addition to a stem cell defect. (medscape.com)
  • It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, in which the proliferation of an abnormal clone of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and other sites results in fibrosis, or the replacement of the marrow with scar tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen is a secondary phenomenon, and the fibroblasts themselves are not part of the abnormal cell clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant cells
  • These agents serve to orchestrate robust immune and inflammatory responses that destroy invading microbes, foreign tissue, and malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This protein promotes cell growth and division and is especially important for controlling blood cell production within the bone marrow . (labtestsonline.org)
  • In JAK2 , this kind of mutation, called a point mutation, replaces the normal amino acid valine (abbreviated V) with phenylalanine (abbreviated F). This amino acid change results in a JAK2 protein that is constantly "on," leading to uncontrolled blood cell production. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The cells are incubated ex vivo in the presence of a recombinant fusion protein PA2024 containing a prostate antigen, prostate acid phosphatase and GM-CSF, an immune-cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • They should prime naive T cells as well as induce transition from chronically activated non-protective CD8+ T cells to healthy CD8+ T cells able to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), that recognise and eliminate cancer cells in an antigen-specific way and also provide long-lived memory CD8+ T cells that will act to prevent relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • 1 5-7 Several TSGs altered by hypermethylation encode genes involved in cell cycle regulation (eg, Rb, p16 , p15 , VHL). (bloodjournal.org)
  • white
  • her white blood cell count was 800. (sandiegoreader.com)
  • Leukemia can cause this, but more often nonlymphocytic leukemia presents with a normal or elevated white blood cell count. (sandiegoreader.com)
  • What is the predominant white clood cell type in acute inflammation? (brainscape.com)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases it may be diagnosed incidentally with an elevated white blood cell count on a routine laboratory test. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,000,000, unresponsive to therapy Cytogenetic evolution with new abnormalities in addition to the Philadelphia chromosome Increasing splenomegaly or white blood cell count, unresponsive to therapy The patient is considered to be in the accelerated phase if any of the above are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib was found to inhibit the progression of CML in the majority of patients (65-75%) sufficiently to achieve regrowth of their normal bone marrow stem cell population (a cytogenetic response) with stable proportions of maturing white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a severe lack of one major class of infection-fighting white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of new red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Based on this understanding we want to monitor LRRK2 function in LRRK2 mutation carriers using blood derived cells as easy accessible cellular system. (michaeljfox.org)
  • While intra-individual variability can relate to different cellular properties in response to external signals, such as cell activation and communication [ 3 , 7 , 14 ], inter-individual variability can relate to differences between the individuals, including genetic makeup, age, sex, and lifestyle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • erythrocytes
  • Adult erythrocytes are the most common blood cell type in mammals, and their characteristic biconcave shape, 7-8 µm diameter and enucleation are amongst the greatest commonalities between mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • preliminary
  • Our preliminary data suggest that the proportion of different precursor cells is altered in patients with PD, but also in preSymptoms & Side Effects LRRK2 mutation carriers, as compared to controls. (michaeljfox.org)
  • leukemic cells
  • Because some leukemic cells (as evaluated by RT-PCR) persist in nearly all patients, the treatment has to be continued indefinitely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • These individuals are generally detected on routine blood cell counts and at the time of diagnosis present without symptoms or at least no symptoms related to their eosinophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, agranulocytosis is sometimes described as "no granulocytes", but a total absence is not required for diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs
  • Dexter observed that mesenchymal stromal cells could maintain early HSCs ex vivo, and both Lord and Gong showed that these cells localized to the endosteal margins in long bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • We propose that the colony forming cell assay has great potential to indicate and/or mirror pathogenic processes based on a constant crosstalk between the immune system and the brain. (michaeljfox.org)
  • A healthy immune system requires immune cells that adapt rapidly to environmental challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • localization
  • However, localization of Th2 and T-cytotoxic (Tc) 2 cells in decidua has not been reported, presumably because of the difficulty in detecting intracellular cytokines in tissues. (jove.com)
  • macrophage
  • 12.M Yang, J-H Shao, Y-J Miao, W Cui, Y-F Qi, J-H Han, X Lin, J Du: Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization. (54doctor.net)
  • Macrophage is any of the specialized class of large, phagocytic cells within the tissues , including blood , that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes and that destroy foreign bacteria and other microorganisms as well as cellular debris, and senescent and damaged cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The apparently serendipitous finding of an opiate alkaloid-sensitive, opioid peptide-insensitive, µ3 opiate receptor subtype expressed by invertebrate immunocytes, human blood monocytes, macrophage cell lines, and human blood granulocytes provided compelling validating evidence for an autonomous role of endogenous morphine as a biologically important cellular signalling molecule (Stefano et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • monocytes and granulocytes
  • With the implicit understanding that monocytes and granulocytes represent distinct cell lineages, this chapter reviews laboratory procedures which can be utilized to assess their functions and phenotypes. (asmscience.org)
  • Two-dimensional dot plots illustrating the separation of monocytes and granulocytes (and lymphocytes) by their inherent light-scattering properties (forward-angle light scatter versus right-angle light scatter) (left) or the combination of a light-scattering property (right-angle light scatter) and a specific lineage-defining surface antigen (CD14-PE)(right). (asmscience.org)
  • dendritic cell
  • To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several studies of the use of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines to attempt to treat measurable metastatic tumor deposits have been unsuccessful. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a murine model, we found that a tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine generated an order of magnitude greater antitumor immunity than immunization with irradiated tumor cells plus the classic adjuvant, Corynebacterium parvum ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the dendritic cell has a very large surface area compared to the overall cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions), they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells, and they promote the repair of damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Here, we based the route of immunization on our observations in murine models of enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production using intranodal injections when compared with subcutaneous or intravenous routes of immunization ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • When bound by its proper ligand, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), it [tyrosine kinase]] becomes active in phosphorylating proteins that, among other functions, promote cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • 9.Yulin Li, Yina Wu, Congcong Zhang, Ping Li, Wei Cui, Jianlei Hao, Xinliang Ma, Zhinan Yin, Jie Du: γδT Cell-Derived Interleukin-17A via an Interleukin-1β-Dependent Mechanism Mediates Cardiac Injury and Fibrosis in Hypertension. (54doctor.net)
  • tissue
  • It contains a single-pass transmembrane domain and that show distinct expression on early hematopoietic precursors and vascular-associated tissue. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Acts as a scaffold that presents selectin carbohydrate ligands in a clustered, tissue specific manner to allow for higher avidity interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells during the inflammatory process. (githubusercontent.com)
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells that circulate in blood do not have all the typical features of their counterparts in tissue, i.e. they are less mature and have no dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells and serves to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection, and to promote healing of any damaged tissue following the clearance of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, alternative splicing of its Precursor mRNA results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct FIP1L1 protein isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • FIP1L1 is a subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 1 (CPSF1) complex that polyadenylates the 3' end of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) (see CPSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Another way of categorizing this is "nonspecific defenses" (skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, fever, interferons, cilia, and stomach acid) and "specific defenses" (the cell-mediated and the humoral systems, both of which attack specific pathogens). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Immature dendritic cells constantly sample the surrounding environment for pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the innate system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way, but, unlike the adaptive immune system, the system does not provide long-lasting immunity to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to clear pathogens or mark them for destruction by other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • Patients with evidence of a vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T-cell proliferative or IFNγ response 1 week after vaccination had a markedly better recurrence-free survival (RFS) at 5 years (63% versus 18%, P = 0.037) than nonresponders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A tumor vaccine consisting of irradiated autologous tumor cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used in phase III trials to treat patients after resection of primary colon cancer ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Initially, MAFs were thought to increase a macrophage's cytotoxic response, allowing enhanced clearance of the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • White Blood
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • 1.Xiaogang Peng, Zhicheng Xiao, Jing Zhang, Yulin Li, Yanjun Dong, Jie Du: IL-17A produced by both γδ T and Th17 cells promotes renal fibrosis via RANTES-mediated leukocyte infiltration after renal obstruction. (54doctor.net)
  • epithelial
  • 3.Aiping Lan, Yongfen Qi, Jie Du: Akt2 Mediates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition by Deactivating GSK3β/Snail Signaling Pathway in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells. (54doctor.net)
  • tyrosine
  • Thiamazole inhibits the enzyme thyroperoxidase, which normally acts in thyroid hormone synthesis by oxidizing the anion iodide (I−) to iodine (I2), hypoiodous acid (HOI), enzyme linked hypoiodate (EOI) facilitating iodine's addition to tyrosine residues on the hormone precursor thyroglobulin, a necessary step in the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate Immune
  • The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive immune
  • Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • For discovering the central role of dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response, Steinman was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Immunoreactivity for C. pneumoniae antigens was observed both intracellularly in neurons, neuroglia, endothelial cells, and peri-endothelial cells, and extracellularly in the frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain with multiple C. pneumoniae -specific antibodies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Neurons G-CSF can also act on neuronal cells as a neurotrophic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation (one of their PRRs recognizes a PAMP) and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)