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  • Proteins
  • Many cellular proteins that interact peripherally with the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes have basic amino acid-rich domains ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The subcellular localization of these proteins generally depends on the specific binding of their basic domains with acidic lipids of target membranes. (pnas.org)
  • Although H + -pumping activities have been detected in several organellar membranes, the molecular identity of all proteins involved is not known. (frontiersin.org)
  • To obtain an overview of bioelectric patterning along the longitudinal and transversal axes of the developing follicle, the spatial distributions of membrane potentials (V mem ), intracellular pH (pH i ) and various membrane-channel proteins were studied systematically using fluorescent indicators, fluorescent inhibitors and antisera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that spatial patterning of V mem , pH i and specific membrane-channel proteins results in bioelectric signals that are supposed to play important roles during oogenesis, e. g. by influencing spatial coordinates, regulating migration processes or modifying the cytoskeletal organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Written by a team of leading scientists in the field, it covers all the essential aspects of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, including the rise and fall of proteins, membranes and gradients, the structural biology of cells, and evolution - the comparative structural biology. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main constituents of the general molecular composition of the cell includes: proteins and lipids which are either free-flowing or membrane-bound, along with different internal compartments known as organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane consists of lipids and proteins, which accounts for its hydrophobicity as a result of being non-polar substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some ultrafiltration membranes have also been used to remove dissolved compounds with high molecular weight, such as proteins and carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) indirectly activate ion channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade that involves G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Structural and biochemical studies suggest that the HBR of HIV-1 MA and analogous regions of other retroviral MA are apposed to face the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes and facilitate membrane binding by interacting with acidic lipids ( 4 , 10 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes, including archaeols. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The established pH gradients are important to drive uptake of essential ions and solutes, but not many transporters involved have been identified to date. (frontiersin.org)
  • In developing follicles, characteristic extracellular current patterns and membrane-potential changes in oocyte and nurse cells have been observed that partly depend on the exchange of protons, potassium ions and sodium ions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophore means "ion carrier" as these compounds catalyze ion transport across hydrophobic membranes such as liquid polymeric membranes (carrier-based ion selective electrodes) or lipid bilayers found in the living cells or synthetic vesicles (liposomes) Some ionophores are synthesized by microorganisms to import ions into their cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Channel formers that introduce a hydrophilic pore into the membrane, allowing ions to pass through without coming into contact with the membrane's hydrophobic interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and thus could exhibit cytotoxic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimize particulate and microbial fouling of the RO membranes by removal of turbidity and bacteria, (2) prevent scaling by removal of the hardness ions, (3) lower the operating pressure of the RO process by reducing the feed-water total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • How do the plants retain such materials as they accumulate in cells against the concentration gradient? (coursehero.com)
  • To investigate the character and mechanisms of Na + influx into roots, Na + -dependent changes in plasma-membrane electrical potentials (∆∆Ψ) were measured in root cells of intact rice ( Oryza sativa L., cv. (springer.com)
  • Sodium-dependent membrane depolarization (∆Ψ) in root cortical and epidermal cells of intact rice seedings, cv. (springer.com)
  • During mid-vitellogenic stages 9 to 10B, characteristic, stage-specific V mem -patterns in the follicle-cell epithelium as well as anteroposterior pH i -gradients in follicle cells and nurse cells were observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, gradients of electrical potential and pH were observed within single cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most eukaryotic cells have a polyamine transporter system on their cell membrane that facilitates the internalization of exogenous polyamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroepithelial cells (NEC) are thought to be neuron-like chemoreceptor cells because they rely on membrane potential changes for the release of neurotransmitters and signal transmission onto nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g. in the case of axonal outgrowth, usually up a gradient of cellular adhesion sites or substrate-bound chemoattractants (the gradient of the chemoattractant being expressed or bound on a surface, in contrast to the classical model of chemotaxis, in which the gradient develops in a soluble fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells migrate easily and quickly in packs[citation needed], so when one cell moves the rest follow in response to the gradient and initial cell movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • As defined above, haptotaxis is the motility of cells up a gradient of substrate bound molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of serum spreading factor was shown to influence directed migration along a gradient of substrate molecules in a few types of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrochemical
  • Electrochemical proton gradient across the cell membrane of Halobacterium halobium: comparison of the light-induced increase with the increase of intracellular adenosine triphosphate under steady-state illumination. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is (in principle) easy to measure whether or not two regions (for example, two glasses of water) have the same electrochemical potential for a certain chemical species (for example, a solute molecule): Allow the species to freely move back and forth between the two regions (for example, connect them with a semi-permeable membrane that lets only that species through). (wikipedia.org)
  • ATPase
  • the Na/K ATPase is located on which membrane? (brainscape.com)
  • Sodium-hydrogen antiporters, such as NHEDC2, convert the proton motive force established by the respiratory chain or the F1F0 mitochondrial ATPase into sodium gradients that drive other energy-requiring processes, transduce environmental signals into cell responses, or function in drug efflux. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentials
  • As external sodium concentrations ([Na + ] ext ) were increased in a step gradient from 0 to 100 mM, membrane potentials depolarized in a saturable manner, fitting a Michaelis-Menten model and contradicting the linear (non-saturating) models developed from radiotracer studies. (springer.com)
  • intracellular
  • Unexpectedly, two other HBR residues, Lys25 and Lys26, suppress membrane binding in the absence of PI(4,5)P 2 and prevent promiscuous intracellular localization of Gag. (pnas.org)
  • This depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open, and for extracellular Ca2+ to flow down its concentration gradient into the cell causing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to greatly increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • We and others have shown that Gag interacts with a plasma-membrane-specific acidic phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P 2 ], via the HBR, and that this interaction is important for efficient membrane binding and plasma membrane targeting of Gag. (pnas.org)
  • synthetic
  • Created from strong and flexible membranes composed predominantly of synthetic polymer, single ply membranes are sealed at joints to form a continuous waterproof barrier and when combined with insulation and regular support, form complete, durable roof systems. (gradientuk.com)
  • Many synthetic membrane-spanning ionophores have also been investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic membranes are made by humans for use in laboratories and industry (such as chemical plants). (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. (biochemj.org)
  • in particular, chloride, which has been shown to pass through a lateral membrane conductance, G metL , in a voltage- and tension-dependent manner ( Rybalchenko and Santos-Sacchi, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • structural
  • A structural change, either through Gag multimerization or phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P 2 ] binding to MA, is required to expose the myristate and enhance membrane binding ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Due to the increased structural complexity of the TM relative to other acellular gels (such as the otolithic membranes), its mechanical properties are consequently significantly more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • However relation to membrane structural stability has been implicated in the concurrence of aldolase A deficiency and dominant (mild) hereditary elliptocytosis, speculatively also relating to ATP depletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • In this mini review we summarize the current status in the field and the open questions that need to be addressed in order to understand how pH gradients are maintained, how this is interconnected with other transport processes and what this means for chloroplast function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, mechanical separation processes for separating gaseous or liquid streams use membrane technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane separation processes operate without heating and therefore use less energy than conventional thermal separation processes such as distillation, sublimation or crystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gradients are naturally present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the body during processes such as angiogenesis or artificially present in biomaterials where gradients are established by altering the concentration of adhesion sites on a polymer substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • 1. A fuel cell device comprising at least one membrane comprising a graft (co)polymer comprising a main chain and grafts bonded covalently to said main chain, each ofsaid grafts comprising both (1) at least one proton acceptor group and (2) at least one proton donor group, said grafts corresponding to amino acid residues or peptide sequences. (patentgenius.com)
  • Involves
  • The method involves specific enzymic or chemical scission of polysaccharide chains followed by high-resolution separation of the degradation products by polyacrylamide-gradient-gel electrophoresis. (biochemj.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • This inhibition of nonspecific membrane binding is likely through suppression of myristate-dependent hydrophobic interaction because mutating Lys25 and Lys26 enhances binding of Gag with neutral-charged liposomes. (pnas.org)
  • antiporter
  • Notably several (Na + ,K + )/H + antiporter systems where identified, that play a role in pH gradient regulation, ion homeostasis, osmoregulation, or coupling of secondary active transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • pump
  • The model predicts that the per gene product is active during the subjective day and functions like a pump to establish the gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a high threshold is reached, the pump shuts off and light-sensitive channels open to dissipate the gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • the value of the gradient when the channels close is the same as the value when the pump starts, and thus a reset in the cycle is produced and an oscillation results. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • A systematic analysis of NaCl-dependent, plasma-membrane depolarization (∆∆Ψ) in rice roots calls into question the current leading model of rapid membrane cycling of Na + under salt stress. (springer.com)
  • Two subsets of antigens were identified, one present on both sinusoidal and canalicular plasma-membrane domains and another, by using antisera pre-absorbed with sinusoidal plasma membranes, that was confined to the bile-canalicular domain. (biochemj.org)
  • Altogether, these data indicate that the HBR is unique among basic phosphoinositide-binding domains, because it integrates three regulatory components, PI(4,5)P 2 , myristate, and RNA, to ensure plasma membrane specificity for particle assembly. (pnas.org)
  • In most cell types, Gag assembles on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM). MA is required for this PM-specific targeting as well as the lipid bilayer binding of Gag. (pnas.org)