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  • tumors
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically inducing this antigen in T-cells by DNA demethylation allows the immune system to recognize a wide range of tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recognition of mutation-induced antigens on tumors by T cells is only one aspect of a more general phenomenon which can rightly be named: T cell immunosurveillance of the integrity of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thus useful as a marker for melanocytic tumors (melanomas) with the caveat that it is normally found in benign nevi as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • present the antigens
  • A class of genes, named cancer-germline genes, is expressed in a large variety of cancer cells but not in normal cells, with the exception of germline cells, which do not carry MHC molecules on their surface and therefore do not present the antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pmel17
  • Short-term epitope-specific vaccination against gp100/PMel17 administered in IFA was highly effective in eliciting systemic T cell responses but had limited clinical effectiveness in the absence of concomitant IL-2 administration ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Its gene product may be referred to as PMEL, silver, ME20, gp100 or Pmel17. (wikipedia.org)
  • APCs
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Although the mechanisms of antigen capture, processing, and presentation by APCs have been well appreciated, the forms of the antigen that are actually transferred from the donor cells to the APC are not clear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T helper 1 (TH1) cells, when injected with overexpressed tumor antigens, have been shown to enhance migration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) into the draining lymph node in mice, further enhancing immune response through activation of CTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • The identification of melanoma-associated Ags (MAA) 2 and their T cell epitopes has stimulated interest in the development of active specific vaccination of patients with advanced cancer ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • The resultant natural hsp110-gp100 complexes are strongly immunogenic as determined by their ability to elicit an antigen-specific IFN-γ production and a cytotoxic T-cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • That signal binds to a receptor, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), on the CTL and turns off the cytotoxic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognize
  • Antibodies against the antigen are used in the medical specialty of anatomic pathology in order to recognize cells of melanocytic differentiation, useful for the diagnosis of a melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CTLs recognize the cancer cells by those antigens and destroy them. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In 2010 administration of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a chimeric antibody receptor (CAR) against B cell antigen CD19 was shown to mediate regression of an advanced B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells were used to treat patients with relapsed and refractory CD19+ B cell malignancies, including B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs because each T cell is endowed with a highly specific receptor that can bind to an antigen present at the surface of another cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • There a process named central tolerance eliminates the T cells that have a receptor recognizing an antigen present on normal cells of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcoma
  • As of 2015 the technique had expanded to treat cervical cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, bile duct cancer and neuroblastoma and in 2016, lung cancer, breast cancer, sarcoma and melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The B16F10 melanoma syngeneic mouse model system was utilized, with a standard therapeutic protocol: challenge with lethal dose of B16F10 cells (5 × 10 4 ) on day 0 and then vaccinate by intramuscular electroporation with 50 μg plasmid on days three, 10, and 17. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cross-presentation of antigens is critical for the induction of adaptive immunity against tumor cells and infectious pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antigen cross-presentation is critical for the activation of T cells to viral and tumor antigens that are expressed by parenchymal cells and is necessary for the elimination of tumor cells and many pathogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells that do not present an antigen are targeted by activated NK cells, leaving little opportunity for any cancer cells to escape. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables the T cells to eliminate cells with "foreign" or "abnormal" antigens without harming the normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, a new antigen is present only on the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any somatic mutation has a probability of producing a new antigen that can be recognized by T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of high avidity T cells against TRP-2 and gp100 destroys both primary and metastatic tumours, leading to longer progression free survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLANA o "MALENA" gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes can be found on the surface of melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • at the National Cancer Institute coined the term MART-1, which stands for "melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells produce antigens, which the immune system can use to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • During "cancer immunoediting", tumor cells can produce antigens that provoke a reduced immune response and/or establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoantigens were recognized by T cells in melanoma patients and were likely the major contributor to positive clinical effects of adoptive cell transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the hsp110-gp100 chaperone complex exhibited inhibitory effects on the progression of wild-type B16 tumor, suggesting that the induced immune response by human gp100 cross-reacts with mouse gp100. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ipilimumab
  • Ipilimumab was approved by US FDA in March 2011 to treat patients with late-stage melanoma that has spread or cannot be removed by surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Although such tolerance mechanisms have emerged as formidable barriers to immunotherapy, as discussed below, our knowledge of tumor-associated antigens for melanoma and other tumor types has provided potential molecular targets for T cell-based immunotherapy, and has allowed for the design of strategies to break immune tolerance for patients with cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study will also assess immune effects and anti-tumour activity in patients with melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunogenicity
  • The contribution of these antigens to tumor immunogenicity is expected to vary according to the mutation rate: higher in lung carcinomas arising in tobacco smokers, in melanomas owing to mutations induced by UV and in the 15% of colorectal carcinomas that have hypermutated DNA owing to defects in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The names MART-1 and melan-A were coined by two groups of researchers who independently sequenced the gene for this antigen in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitumor
  • More importantly, the antitumor response obtained with the hsp110-gp100 complex is more potent than that obtained using Complete Freund's Adjuvant with gp100, whereas no response was observed against mouse hsp110 itself. (aacrjournals.org)