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  • fixation
  • Here, we tested and optimized glyoxal fixation and surprisingly found it to be more efficient than PFA-based protocols. (uni-hd.de)
  • We validated glyoxal fixation in multiple laboratories against different PFA-based protocols and confirmed that it enabled better immunostainings for a majority of the targets. (uni-hd.de)
  • oxidative
  • In consequence, the cells activated compensatory mechanisms and increased the levels of the anti-oxidative and stress-related proteins heme oxygenase-1, osteopontin, heat shock protein 27, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, and cathepsin D. Furthermore, VEGF-A 165a mRNA expression and VEGF-A protein production were significantly increased after incubation with glyoxal in ARPE-19 cells. (springermedizin.de)
  • The glyoxal-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells may provide a suitable in vitro model for studying RPE cellular reactions to AGEs that occur in AMD or in DR. (springermedizin.de)
  • The inhibitory effect of 2"-O-glycosyl isovitexin (2"-O-GIV), isolated from young barley leaves, on glyoxal formation from the oxidative degradation of three fatty acid ethyl esters was measured. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This damaging system was used to induce numerous oxidative lesions including glyoxal DNA modifications, from which resulted a number of clones. (salford.ac.uk)
  • CHOCHO
  • East China is the 'hotspot' of glyoxal (CHOCHO), especially over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, where glyoxal is yielded from the oxidation of aromatics. (mdpi.com)
  • Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • apoptotic cells
  • The number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher at 45°C, while the percentage of healthy cells was significantly lower at 45°C. WIRA irradiation itself or in combination with glyoxal treatment exerted no damaging effects on the fibroblasts at physiological (37°-40°C) or higher (42°-45°C) temperatures compared to untreated controls. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • reactive
  • or 2) vital staining to determine apoptosis rates (annexin V binding), formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and changes in intracellular pH upon treatment of cells with glyoxal. (springermedizin.de)
  • aerosol
  • As a cloud droplet evaporates, the remaining glyoxal and methylglyoxal must either form low-volatility compounds such as oligomers and remain in the aerosol phase, or transfer back to the gas phase. (nih.gov)
  • A series of experiments on evaporating aqueous aerosol droplets indicates that over the atmospherically relevant concentration range for clouds and fog (4-1000 microM), 33 +/- 11% of glyoxal and 19 +/- 13% of methylglyoxal remains in the aerosol phase while the remainder evaporates. (nih.gov)
  • Our measurements of evaporation fractions can be used to estimate the global aerosol formation potential of glyoxal and methylglyoxal via self-reactions at 1 and 1.6 Tg C yr(-1), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • However, these estimates are likely lower limits for their total aerosol formation potential because oxidants and amines will also react with glyoxal and methylglyoxal to form additional low-volatility products. (nih.gov)
  • esters
  • Glyoxal formed from these fatty acid esters was analysed by gas chromatography after it had been derivatized to quinoxaline with 1,2-phenylenediamine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • compounds
  • Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are scavenged by clouds, where a fraction of these compounds are oxidized during the lifetime of the droplet. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • Glyoxal induced changes in VEGF-A 165a mRNA expression and protein production were determined by real-time PCR and by flow cytometry after immunocytochemical staining. (springermedizin.de)
  • Peroxynitrite induces formation of N( epsilon )-(carboxymethyl) lysine by the cleavage of Amadori product and generation of glucosone and glyoxal from glucose: novel pathways for protein modification by peroxynitrite. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treatment with glyoxal induced CML formation and increased AIF and Bax protein level, as detected by western blotting. (arvojournals.org)
  • AGEs
  • Increasing glyoxal concentrations resulted in enhanced formation of AGEs, such as CML modifications of proteins. (springermedizin.de)
  • Glyoxal leads to formation of AGEs and thereby to an up-regulation of the tested mitochondria-associated apoptosis markers in retinal explants. (arvojournals.org)
  • organic
  • To better understand the glyoxal spatial-temporal characteristics over China and evaluate the effectiveness of atmospheric prevention efforts on the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, we present an algorithm for glyoxal retrieval using the Ozone Monitoring instrument (OMI) over China. (mdpi.com)
  • Results
  • The results show that our algorithm can obtain the glyoxal spatial and temporal variations in different regions over China. (mdpi.com)
  • region
  • It shows that the fitting interval of 430-458 nm and a 4th order polynomial are optimal for glyoxal retrieval when using the daily mean value of the earthshine spectrum in the Pacific region as a reference. (mdpi.com)
  • mass
  • Unlike glyoxal, which forms acetal oligomers, exact mass AMS data indicates that the majority of methylglyoxal oligomers are formed by aldol condensation reactions, likely catalyzed by pyruvic acid, formed from methylglyoxal disproportionation. (nih.gov)
  • water
  • Effects of temperature and water-filtered infrared-A alone or in combination on healthy and glyoxal-stressed fibroblast cultures. (sigmaaldrich.com)