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  • structural
  • α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid (GSL) that has some minor structural modifications from a compound originally isolated from a marine sponge, is the most well-known Ag for i NKT cells ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A series of glycosphingolipids and a series of protected oligonucleotides of known structure were analyzed to ascertain the potential utility of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry in the structural elucidation of novel compounds in these classes. (illinois.edu)
  • The accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the nervous system has been linked to structural changes, namely ectopic dendritogenesis and meganeurite formation, and has been targeted therapeutically. (wikipedia.org)
  • iGb3
  • reported that the response to Gram-positive bacteria, such as Salmonella , required TLR signaling and presentation of an endogenous glycosphingolipid, isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3), by dendritic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Isoglobotriosylceramide, Gal(α1→3)Gal(β1→4)Glcβ(1→1)Cer, abbreviated as iGb3, is an iso-globo-series of glycosphingolipid, which mysteriously disappeared in most mammals studied (pig, mouse, and human), except trace amount reported in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • iGb3 was discovered in canine and rat intestines among iso-globo-series of glycosphingolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012 May-Jun;19(3):196-206 Tahiri F, Li Y, Hawke D, Ganiko L, Almeida I, Levery S, Zhou D. Lack of iGb3 and Isoglobo-Series Glycosphingolipids in Pig Organs Used for Xenotransplantation: Implications for Natural Killer T-Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Thus, CD1d-restricted NKT cells appear to have two mechanisms for activation in response to microbial pathogens: an indirect mechanism that involves TLR recognition of LPS by dendritic cells, leading to the presentation of an endogenous lipid for Gram-positive bacteria, and a direct mechanism whereby the NKT cells are directly activated by microbial glycosphingolipids presented by CD1d molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • Carbohydrate sequence and branching information, and fatty acid and lipid base composition were readily obtained from the mass spectra of glycosphingolipids while bidirectional nucleotide sequence, nucleotide base, and protecting group assignments were obtained for oligonucleotides. (illinois.edu)
  • Cells
  • report the identification of microbial glycosphingolipid ligands that activate NKT cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Both groups also identified specific glycosphingolipids from the Gram-negative bacteria that activated the NKT cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, our knowledge regarding human pluripotent stem cell glycosphingolipid expression was until recently mainly based on immunological assays of intact cells due to the very limited amounts of cell material available. (deepdyve.com)
  • In recent years the knowledge regarding glycosphingolipids in human embryonic stem cells has been extended by biochemical studies, which is the focus of this review. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although this result could have reflected the unique attributes of α-GalCer, using several related glycolipid compounds, we show here that the threshold for full activation of Vα14 i NKT cells by these glycosphingolipids requires a relatively high-affinity TCR interaction with a long t 1/2 . (pnas.org)
  • Degradation of glycosphingolipids occurs in the lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lewis histo-blood group system comprises a set of fucosylated glycosphingolipids that are synthesized by exocrine epithelial cells and circulate in body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction
  • We have employed total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy to explore the interaction kinetics between individual unlabeled noroviruslike particles, which are attached to a glycosphingolipid-containing lipid bilayer, and fluorescent vesicles containing different types and concentrations of glycosphingolipids. (diva-portal.org)
  • Pathway
  • In the cell line lacking glycosphingolipids, we found that two determinants of lumenal pH were affected: (1) We stumbled upon a novel GCS-dependent pathway for the expression of the putative anion channel Oca2. (uu.nl)
  • intracellular
  • Although glycosphingolipids are ubiquitously expressed and essential for multicellular organisms, surprisingly little is known about their intracellular functions. (uu.nl)
  • nervous
  • Based on this knowledge, a tentative structure of a human peripheral nervous system glycosphingolipid implicated in certain cases of disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease, was proposed. (illinois.edu)
  • found
  • In the negative ion mode in particular, fast atom bombardment was found to be a useful tool for the determination of the primary structure of glycosphingolipids and oligonucleotides. (illinois.edu)
  • Suitable negative ion mass markers were found in dispersions of poly(ethylene) and poly(propylene) glycols in a triethylenetetramine matrix, a matrix which also proved useful in the analysis of glycosphingolipids. (illinois.edu)