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  • steviol glycosides
  • The European Food Safety Authority's scientific Panel on additives, the ANS Panel, has assessed the safety of steviol glycosides, sweeteners extracted from plant leaves, and established an Acceptable Daily Intake for their safe use. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel set an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 4 mg per kg body weight per day for steviol glycosides, a level consistent with that already established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). (europa.eu)
  • Steviol glycosides are intense sweeteners extracted from the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). (europa.eu)
  • Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , vol. 2013, Article ID 348169, 11 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo , little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. (hindawi.com)
  • Steviol glycosides are the chemical compounds responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and the main ingredients (or precursors) of many sweeteners marketed under the generic name stevia and several trade names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana have been reported to be between 30 and 320 times sweeter than sucrose, although there is some disagreement in the technical literature about these numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steviol glycosides stimulate the insulin secretion through potentiation of the β-cell, preventing high blood glucose after a meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for steviol glycosides, expressed as steviol equivalents, has been established to be 4 mg/kg body weight/day, and is based on no observed effects of a 100 fold higher dose in a rat study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The steviol glycosides found in S. rebaudiana leaves, and their weight percentage, include: Stevioside (5-10%) Rebaudioside A (2-4%) Rebaudioside C (1-2%) Dulcoside A (0.5-1%) Rebaudioside B Rebaudioside D Rebaudioside E The last three are present only in minute quantities, and rebaudioside B has been claimed to be a byproduct of the isolation technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative sweetness seems to vary with concentration: a mix of steviol glycosides in the natural proportions was found to be 150 times sweeter than sucrose when matching a 3% sucrose solution, but only 100 times sweeter when matching a 10% sucrose solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stevia
  • A commercial steviol glycoside mixture extracted from the plant was found to have about 80% stevioside, 8% rebaudioside A, and 0.6% rebaudioside C. The Chinese plant Rubus chingii produces rubusoside, a steviol glycoside not found in Stevia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation
  • This review describes the isolation and structural elucidation of resin glycosides from some Convolvulaceae plants, including Ipomoea operculata , Pharbitis nil , Quamoclit pennata , Calystegia soldanella , and I. muricata . (springer.com)
  • I. Isolation and structure elucidation of orizabin-I, II, III and IV, genuine resin glycosides from the root of Ipomoea orizabensis . (springer.com)
  • plants
  • Resin glycosides are well known as purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of certain crude drugs such as Mexican Scammony Radix, Orizabae Tuber, and Jalapae Tuber, all of which originate from Convolvulaceae plants. (springer.com)
  • Below is a full list of plants from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major cyanogenic glycosides found in the edible parts of plants used for human or animal consumption are summarized in Table 1. (inchem.org)
  • Table 1: The occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides in major edible plants (Conn, 1979a,b) Cyanogenic Plant species glycosides Common name Latin name Amygdalin almonds Prunus amygdalus. (inchem.org)
  • 2000
  • EXPLANATION Cyanogenic glycosides are phytotoxins which occur in at least 2000 plant species, of which a number of species are used as food in some areas of the world. (inchem.org)
  • bufadienolides
  • milkweed): oleandrin Adonis vernalis (Spring pheasant's eye): adonitoxin Kalanchoe daigremontiana and other Kalanchoe species: daigremontianin and others Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort): scillarenin Drimia maritima (squill): proscillaridine A Bufo marinus (cane toad): various bufadienolides Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • have yielded two new flavonoid glycosides, for which the structures of 4′,5,5′,7-tetrahydroxy-3′-methoxyflavonol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (laricitrin 3-glucoside) and 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyflavonol 3-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-L-rhamnoside] (syringetin 3-rutinoside) have been established. (springer.com)
  • main
  • Cardiac glycosides have long served as the main medical treatment to congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia, due to their effects of increasing the force of muscle contraction while reducing heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Cardiac glycosides can be more specifically categorized based on the plant they are derived from, as in the following list. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors are important in this toxicity: The first aspect is the processing of plant products containing cyanogenic glycosides. (inchem.org)
  • Cyanide, released from a cyanogenic glycoside in food by -glucosidase either of plant or from gut microflora origin and taken up, follows the known cyanide metabolic pathway and toxicokinetics both for animals and man. (inchem.org)
  • drug
  • Castañeda-Gómez J, Pereda-Miranda R (2011) Resin glycosides from the herbal drug jalap ( Ipomoea purga ). (springer.com)
  • With regard to potassium ion movement, because both cardiac glycosides and potassium compete for binding to the ATPase pump, changes in extracellular potassium concentration can potentially lead to altered drug efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • In several studies both in animals and man the toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides is often expressed as mg releasable cyanide. (inchem.org)
  • Institute
  • CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES First draft prepared by Dr G. Speijers, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection Laboratory for Toxicology Bilthoven, The Netherlands 1. (inchem.org)
  • sweet
  • Escalante-Sánchez E, Pereda-Miranda R (2007) Batatins I and II, ester-type dimers of acylated pentasaccarides from the resin glycosides of sweet potato. (springer.com)
  • Rosas-Raíez D, Pereda-Miranda R (2013) Resin glycosides from the yellow-skinned variety of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ). (springer.com)