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  • enzymatic
  • An extensive analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana peripheral and integral thylakoid membrane proteome was performed by sequential extractions with salt, detergent, and organic solvents, followed by multidimensional protein separation steps (reverse-phase HPLC and one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis gels), different enzymatic and nonenzymatic protein cleavage techniques, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics. (plantcell.org)
  • Enzymatic confirmation of the diagnosis relies on measurement of glycine cleavage system (GCS) enzyme activity in liver obtained by open biopsy or autopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic analysis has identified three metabolic lesions in NKH, deficiencies of P-, T-, and H-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The structure, polymorphism, and expression of GCSH could facilitate the molecular analysis of patients with variant forms of NKH that are caused by H-protein deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteasome subcomponents are often referred to by their Svedberg sedimentation coefficient (denoted S). The proteasome most exclusively used in mammals is the cytosolic 26S proteasome, which is about 2000 kilodaltons (kDa) in molecular mass containing one 20S protein subunit and two 19S regulatory cap subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • aminomethyl
  • In the reverse reaction, T-protein catalyzes the formation of the H-protein-bound aminomethyl lipoate intermediate from 5,10-CH2-H4folate, ammonia, and reduced H-protein via an ordered Ter Bi mechanism, in which reduced H-protein is the first substrate to bind followed by 5,10-CH2-H4folate and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Altogether, 154 proteins were identified, of which 76 (49%) were α-helical integral membrane proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Twenty-seven new proteins without known function but with predicted chloroplast transit peptides were identified, of which 17 (63%) are integral membrane proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • The features that define a neuron are electrical excitability and the presence of synapses, which are complex membrane junctions that transmit signals to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • The NOS-like protein involved in NO production during HR in pea appears to be more related to At3g47450 sequence, and is possibly encoded partially by the cloned 784-bp pea cDNA. (openthesis.org)
  • enzymes
  • The system is a series of enzymes that are triggered in response to high concentrations of the amino acid glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In digestion of food, digestive enzymes may be released into the environment for extracellular digestion whereby proteolytic cleavage breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids so that they may be absorbed and used by an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalytic enzymes: these molecules are special proteins that catalyze a reaction by increasing the rate of the reaction and lowering the activation energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Comparisons of the kinetics of mRNA accumulation between the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the H-protein of glycine decarboxylase during the greening of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that their expression is controlled in parallel. (nus.edu.sg)
  • photosynthetic
  • We identified 83 out of 100 known proteins of the thylakoid localized photosynthetic apparatus, including several new paralogues and some 20 proteins involved in protein insertion, assembly, folding, or proteolysis. (plantcell.org)
  • The high coverage of the photosynthetic apparatus and the identification of known hydrophobic proteins with low expression levels, such as cpSecE, Ohp1, and Ohp2, indicate an excellent dynamic resolution of the analysis. (plantcell.org)
  • The biogenesis, maintenance, and regulated breakdown of these photosynthetic complexes are very complex processes. (plantcell.org)
  • Although often one of the three photosynthetic decarboxylases predominate, the simultaneous operation of all three is also shown to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • This forms the proalbumin after the signal peptide is cleaved, and a further processing to remove the N-terminal 6-residue propeptide yields the mature form of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the exposed N-terminal residue may determine the half-life of the protein according to the N-end rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later work on modification of histones led to the identification of an unexpected covalent modification of the histone protein by a bond between a lysine side chain of the histone and the C-terminal glycine residue of ubiquitin, a protein that had no known function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dinucleotide binding involves two glycine rich GXGXXG motifs, a hydrophobic groove involving at least six amino acid residues, and a negatively charged residue at the end of the βB-strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In later developmental stages the capacity for matrix organic acid metabolism was evident, accompanied by the appearance of proteins for TCA cycle components, and coordination of electron transport chain assembly through components encoded in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • substrates
  • Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • proteolysis
  • Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis is important as an analytical tool for studying proteins in the laboratory, as well as industrially, for example in food processing and stain removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis can, therefore, be a method of regulating biological processes by turning inactive proteins into active ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • histidine
  • In more rare cases, a missense mutation in the genetic code of the T-protein, causing the histidine in position 42 to be mutated to arginine, was also found to result in nonketotic hypergycinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolytic
  • The complement system of the immune response also involves a complex sequential proteolytic activation and interaction that result in an attack on invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteolytic activities of this system was isolated as a multi-protein complex originally called the multi-catalytic proteinase complex by Sherwin Wilk and Marion Orlowski. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • They require coordinated expression of the nuclear and plastid genome and coordination between protein accumulation and biosynthesis of many cofactors in addition to the formation and maintenance of the lipid bilayer. (plantcell.org)
  • biogenesis
  • Whelan, James 2004-10-06 00:00:00 Mitochondrial biogenesis requires a coordinated expression of both the nuclear and the organellar genomes and specific intracellular protein trafficking, processing and assembly machinery. (deepdyve.com)
  • These new proteins, likely important in thylakoid biogenesis, include two rubredoxins, a potential metallochaperone, and a new DnaJ-like protein. (plantcell.org)
  • breakdown
  • The breakdown of excess glycine is necessary for the normal development and function of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (nih.gov)
  • GABA
  • Two general classes of GABA receptor are known: GABAA in which the receptor is part of a ligand-gated ion channel complex GABAB metabotropic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that open or close ion channels via intermediaries (G proteins) Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons, and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the adult vertebrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated protein and contactin-associated protein like, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abundant
  • Phylogenetic analysis and further characterization of this gene suggested that AoDHN1 belongs to group II Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • strains
  • We found agr-regulated proteins are generally upregulated in CA-MRSA strains USA300 and USA400 and surface-associated proteins to be upregulated in HA-MRSA strains USA100 and USA200. (usf.edu)
  • receptors
  • These studies have provided evidence that carnosol targets multiple deregulated pathways associated with inflammation and cancer that include nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), apoptotic related proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt, androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as molecular targets. (ommegaonline.org)
  • The metabotropic family are G protein-coupled receptors, meaning that they exert their effects via a complex second messenger system. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • This may involve removal of the N-terminal methionine, signal peptide, and/or the conversion of an inactive or non-functional protein to an active one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins that are to be targeted to a particular organelle or for secretion have an N-terminal signal peptide that directs the protein to its final destination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein folding occurs in the single-chain Proinsulin form which facilitates formation of the ultimately inter-peptide disulfide bonds, and the ultimately intra-peptide disulfide bond, found in the native structure of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis
  • Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis is important as an analytical tool for studying proteins in the laboratory, as well as industrially, for example in food processing and stain removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolysis can, therefore, be a method of regulating biological processes by turning inactive proteins into active ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • Heme l is the derivative of heme B which is covalently attached to the protein of lactoperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, and thyroid peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • other important types include heme A and heme C. Isolated hemes are commonly designated by capital letters while hemes bound to proteins are designated by lower case letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is a polyubiquitin chain that is bound by the proteasome, allowing it to degrade the tagged protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Since protein expression in Escherichia coli represents the most facile approach (Mahalik et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Growth of E. coli cells expressing AoDHN1 was significantly higher than that of the control cells without AoDHN1 under salinity and drought stresses, suggesting that the mangrove dehydrin protein helps to mitigate the abiotic stresses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • complement
  • In the post-genomic era, proteomic studies analyzing the protein complement of a genome in a particular organism at any given time, have gained real significance. (usf.edu)
  • function
  • To enhance our understanding of the function(s) of γ-tubulin-complex proteins (GCPs), we identified and analyzed the functions of the Aspergillus nidulans homologs of GCP2-GCP6 (here designated GCPB-GCBF). (biologists.org)
  • GCPD-GCPF function in reducing the frequency of chromosome mis-segregation and in the assembly of large γ-tubulin complexes. (biologists.org)
  • Facilitates binding of MDM2 to p53/TP53 and the mono- and polyubiquitination of p53/TP53 by MDM2 suggesting a function in targeting the TP53:MDM2 complex to the 26S proteasome. (genecards.org)
  • The outer two rings each contain seven α subunits whose function is to maintain a "gate" through which proteins enter the barrel. (wikipedia.org)
  • largely
  • This result is largely due to dynamic changes in protein expression profiles which can lead wide alterations in physiology and behavior. (usf.edu)
  • produce
  • Many viruses also produce their proteins initially as a single polypeptide chain that were translated from a polycistronic mRNA. (wikipedia.org)