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  • peptide
  • Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 were synthesized at our institution's Microchemistry Facility, purified by high-performance liquid chromatography, their structures verified by mass spectroscopy and the peptide content (58% for endomorphin-1 and 74% for endomorphin-2) determined by Rockefeller University's Protein Technology Center. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacology
  • 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione--pharmacology;Analysis of Variance;Behavior, Addictive--physiopathology;Conditioning, Operant--drug effects;Cues;Dopamine Antagonists--pharmacology;Dose-Response Relationship, Drug;Excitatory Amino Acid. (musc.edu)
  • membrane
  • In assays measuring G-protein activation, TIPP failed to stimulate guanosine 5′- O -(3-[ 35 S]thio)triphosphate ([ 35 S]GTPγS) binding in membrane preparations, which is consistent with an antagonist profile. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2 The activation of MORs result in reduction of 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, membrane hyperpolarization, and subsequent neuronal depression. (asahq.org)
  • basal
  • Our laboratory has demonstrated the presence of basal MOR signaling activity in various tissues in cell culture (Wang et al. (aspetjournals.org)
  • proteins
  • In general, fast activation of ERKs (2 min) mediated by G proteins resulted in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated ERKs, whereas a slower activation of ERKs (10 min) mediated by β-arrestins resulted in the cytosolic retention of the phosphorylated ERKs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ketamine
  • 2 For instance, ketamine combined with morphine might be clinically efficient at lower doses than those currently used when administered separately. (asahq.org)
  • 4,5 Whether ketamine combined with morphine is a clinically relevant combination in orofacial pain is still unknown. (asahq.org)
  • analgesia
  • 1,2 To minimize such undesirable effects, the clinical concept of balanced or multimodal analgesia proposes to use a combination of analgesics to provide better pain relief and to minimize the side effects of each drug. (asahq.org)
  • tissues
  • Pain, an unpleasant experience caused by intense or damaging stimuli, is primarily protective in nature and can act as a sensorial modality to indicate the presence of tissues injury [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DRUGS
  • GPCRs account for up to 50% of currently marketed drugs [ 1 - 4 ] and continue to be the focus of intense research in drug development. (stonel.info)