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  • neuronal
  • Despite morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological analysis, the functions of neuronal α-BGT binding sites and nAChRs in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these findings establish PRMT8 as an important component of the molecular machinery required for hippocampal neuronal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Subunit
  • Because α7 is the only subunit of these three that is widely expressed in mammalian brain, it has been suspected that α7 contributes to the high-affinity α-BGT binding site, the structure and functional significance of which have been a long-standing source of controversy ( Sargent, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • QMI was performed on 92 hippocampal and cortical samples taken from seven mouse models of ASD: Shank3B, Shank3Δex4-9, Ube3a 2xTG , TSC2, FMR1, and CNTNAP2 mutants, as well as E12.5 VPA (maternal valproic acid injection on day 12.5 post-conception). (beds.ac.uk)
  • agonist
  • thus, we reasoned that R4A might preferentially bind the open configuration of the NMDAR, enhancing the effects of a true agonist but not functioning as one. (jimmunol.org)
  • Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. (jove.com)
  • When an agonist binds, these two loops move towards each other, opening the pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • The results of this study indicate that the α-BGT binding sites are equivalent to the α7-containing nAChRs that mediate fast, desensitizing nicotinic currents in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The hippocampus, which sends a major output to the reward system, is a primary site of activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulation, particularly by endocannabinoids and glutamate. (hindawi.com)
  • Craving and relapse are based on memories of the effects produced by substances of abuse on mental and physical conditions, which suggests indispensable roles of the hippocampus and the hippocampal endocannabinoid system in reward-related learning and addiction. (hindawi.com)
  • ligand
  • In order to elicit a fluorescence response from the GEI, ligand binding or enzymatic modification must cause a change in molecular conformation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dimerization starts in the endoplasmic reticulum with the interaction of N-terminal LIVBP domains, then "zips up" through the ligand-binding domain into the transmembrane ion pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • I will introduce two representative neuromodulators that are widely studied in reward-related learning (e.g., ghrelin and endocannabinoids) and show how they might contribute to hippocampal neuron activities and Ca 2+ -mediated signaling processes in synaptic plasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • regulate
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally through binding specific sites within the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of their target mRNAs. (genes2cognition.org)
  • glucose
  • The balance between these two opposing forces is critical in the formation of the nervous system and in neurodegeneration where there might also be a role for cyclic GMP in modulating glucose and glutamate transporter mechanisms in synaptosomes . (scirp.org)
  • pore
  • While glutamate may "open" the pore, the ions cannot travel through the channel due to the magnesium block. (learner.org)
  • The mechanism of desensitization is believed to be due to a small change in angle of one of the parts of the binding site, closing the pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • We wondered if anti-DNA, anti-peptide cross-reactive Abs might bind NMDAR and so potentially affect both cognitive functions and mood. (jimmunol.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism operates during normal development, but its inhibition may have a protective influence on dendritic trees under toxic conditions, in which the silencing of CD44 expression prevented dendritic shortening induced by glutamate exposure. (jove.com)
  • RNAs
  • About five years later it was discovered that there were antibodies that bind to an RNA epitope and, using RNAs mapping, the sequence of that RNA epitope was also identified. (hopkinsarthritis.org)
  • To find out, the team injected HDAC2-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) into the hippocampal CA1 areas of CK-p25 mice. (alzforum.org)
  • AMPAR
  • Because we find that NPRAP also binds to PSD-95, cadherin-NPRAP complexes may be linked to the PSD-95 scaffold, which is involved in tethering NMDAR and TARP-AMPAR complexes and which also interacts with neuroligins. (jneurosci.org)
  • soluble
  • Some of the delayed actions of soluble APPs might involve regulation of gene expression through transcription factor NF-kappa-B. That is, soluble APPs counteract the effects of glutamate. (scirp.org)
  • cadherins
  • Exogenous NPRAP that was bound to cadherins at adherens junctions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells recruited ABP from the cytosol to form cadherin-NPRAP-ABP complexes, dependent on NPRAP interaction with the ABP PDZ domain 2. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cadherins are homophilic adhesion molecules that, together with their intracellular binding partners the catenins, mediate adhesion and signaling at a variety of intercellular junctions. (jneurosci.org)
  • interaction
  • A 286982 is a potent inhibitor of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction (IC50 values are 44 and 35 nM in LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding and LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion assays respectively). (emmx.com)
  • anchor
  • These effects were rescued by expressing a recombinant AIS-targeted Nav or by a minimal construct containing the ankyrin-binding domain of Nav1.2 and a membrane anchor (mABD). (frontiersin.org)
  • opens
  • The channel opens when two sites are occupied, and increases its current as more binding sites are occupied. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Hippocampal spatial learning in the Morris water maze was slightly anomalous with mice exhibiting an abnormal swimming pattern. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, behavioral analyses show that PRMT8 conditional knock-out mice exhibit impaired hippocampal-dependent fear learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Comparing this model to wild-type mice, Gräff and colleagues found higher levels of HDAC2 in hippocampal area CA1 and in the prefrontal cortex, while related class I HDACs (HDAC1 and HDAC3, also involved in memory formation) remained normal. (alzforum.org)
  • detectable
  • Autoradiography with [ 3 H]nicotine revealed no detectable abnormalities of high-affinity nicotine binding sites, but there was an absence of high-affinity [ 125 I]α-BGT sites. (jneurosci.org)
  • ankyrin
  • We found that the ankyrin-binding motif of Na v 1.2 that determines channel concentration at the AIS depends on a glutamate residue (E1111), but also on several serine residues (S1112, S1124, and S1126). (rupress.org)
  • processes
  • The cAMP response element-binding (CREB) may be a universal modulator of processes required for memory formation, and increasing the levels of second messengers like cAMP and cGMP could ultimately lead to CREB activation. (jove.com)