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  • Peptide
  • Furthermore, the potential interaction of Epac with β-cell signaling pathways that subserve stimulatory influences of glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, or pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide is only now becoming apparent. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have previously described a novel glucose-sensing mechanism in a glucagon-like peptide-1-secreting cell line, GLUTag, involving the activity of sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A precursor (ANP-A) (ANPRA) (GC-A)(Guanylate cyclase) (EC 4.6.1.2) (NPR-A) (Atrial natriuretic peptideA-type receptor). (nctu.edu.tw)
  • Western Blot
  • The studies by another group is also supportive of this observation and reports the presence of autoantibodies to GLUT-2 detectable in western blot (3). (ifcc.org)
  • Sensing
  • Here I will review some aspects of glucose sensing by the brain. (springer.com)
  • Archer SL, Wu XC, Thebaud B, Moudgil R, Hashimoto K, Michelakis ED (2004) O 2 sensing in the human ductus arteriosus: redox-sensitive K + channels are regulated by mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide. (springer.com)
  • hepatic
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are all strongly associated and are all reaching epidemic proportions. (nih.gov)
  • The DAG-PKCϵ hypothesis can explain the occurrence of hepatic insulin resistance observed in most cases of NAFLD associated with obesity, lipodystrophy, and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The net result is a decreased in hepatic glycogen synthesis, owing to decreased activation of glycogen synthase, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis through reduced inactivation of FOXO1, which results in an exaggerated glucose release through glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). (nih.gov)
  • 0.05
  • Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average birth weight of 1.55 ± 0.05 kg received 1 of 2 treatments based on their assignment to either the control (CON) group or the GOS (GOS) group in each litter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • liver
  • After an overnight fast, the liver and kidney are the primary sites of glucose production ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose released from the liver is derived from both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, whereas that released by the kidney is derived exclusively from gluconeogenesis ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, not all ingested glucose reaches the systemic circulation because a portion of it is metabolized by the gut and/or stored in the liver as glycogen ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Under these conditions, the liver accounted for approximately one-third of the defect of total body glucose uptake and muscle accounted for two-thirds. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated less GLUT-1 in c4 tumours, whereas GLUT-2 (liver type) was similar to WT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although several drugs for type II diabetes are in vogue , they have shown side effects such as liver toxicity and gastrointestinal adversity [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence
  • Bady I, Marty N, Dallaporta M, Emery M, Gyger J, Tarussio D, Foretz M, Thorens B (2006) Evidence from glut2-null mice that glucose is a critical physiological regulator of feeding. (springer.com)
  • Evidence for the presence of specialized cells synthesizing (pro)insulin, GAD, and IA-2 in the medullary thymus in humans and also in peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes). (springer.com)
  • Inhibition
  • The same group later identified the target of these antibodies as the GLUT-2, as indicated by selective inhibition of glucose uptake in GLUT-2 transfected cell line after incubation with patients' sera (2). (ifcc.org)
  • Inhibition of α -glucosidase and α -amylase which digest dietary starch into glucose was studied as a method for controlling blood sugar levels [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • vitro
  • A triterpene glycoside (TG) fraction isolated and purified from ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre (EEGS) was investigated for blood glucose control benefit using in vitro methods. (hindawi.com)
  • expression
  • Factors that might upregulate glucose uptake independently of HIF-1 (phospho-Akt, c-Myc) were shown to have either lower or similar expression in c4 compared to WT tumours. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, there was further one-fold enhancement in the expression of GLUT2 compared to commercial standard DAG (deacylgymnemic acid). (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the functional defects in β -cells are often accompanied by a reduction in expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) levels, further characterized by increased apoptosis of β -cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)