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  • proteins
  • ABC transporters often consist of multiple subunits, one or two of which are transmembrane proteins and one or two of which are membrane-associated ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABC transporters are considered to be with the ABC superfamily based on the sequence and organization of their ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domains, even though the integral membrane proteins may have evolved independently several times, and thus comprise different protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • a "2 TMS" protein has 2 transmembrane segments) to give 6 TMS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third subgroup of ABC proteins do not function as transporters, but are rather involved in translation and DNA repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • The chvE-gguAB gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes glucose and galactose importers that are also associated with virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell membrane
  • The membrane-spanning region of the ABC transporter protects hydrophilic substrates from the lipids of the membrane bilayer thus providing a pathway across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT2
  • The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na + /glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. (mdpi.com)
  • A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. (mdpi.com)
  • Arluison M, Quignon M, Nguyen P, Thorens B, Leloup C, Penicaud L (2004a) Distribution and anatomical localization of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in the adult rat brain-an immunohistochemical study. (springer.com)
  • Arluison M, Quignon M, Thorens B, Leloup C, Penicaud L (2004b) Immunocytochemical localization of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in the adult rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Bady I, Marty N, Dallaporta M, Emery M, Gyger J, Tarussio D, Foretz M, Thorens B (2006) Evidence from glut2-null mice that glucose is a critical physiological regulator of feeding. (springer.com)
  • The sugar transporter GLUT2, present in several tissues of the gut-brain axis, has been reported to be involved in the control of food intake. (physiology.org)
  • GLUT2 is a sugar transporter sustaining energy production in the cell, but it can also function as a receptor for extracellular glucose. (physiology.org)
  • However, the contribution of the receptor function over the transporter function of GLUT2 in the control of food intake remains to be determined. (physiology.org)
  • Thus, we generated transgenic mice that express a GLUT2-loop domain, blocking the detection of glucose but leaving GLUT2-dependent glucose transport unaffected. (physiology.org)
  • Inhibiting GLUT2-mediated glucose detection augmented daily food intake by a mechanism that increased the meal size but not the number of meals. (physiology.org)
  • Our data provide evidence that glucose detection by GLUT2 contributes to the control of food intake by the hypothalamus. (physiology.org)
  • The sugar transporter receptor, i.e., "transceptor" GLUT2, may constitute a drug target to treat eating disorders and associated metabolic diseases, particularly by modulating its receptor function without affecting vital sugar provision by its transporter function. (physiology.org)
  • By contrast, GLUT2, a high-capacity, high- K m transporter isoform ( 6 ), when associated with an efficient glucokinase, sustains fluxes of higher glucose concentrations. (physiology.org)
  • GLUT2 is present in brain areas involved in the control of food intake, whereas the exact nature of GLUT2-expressing cells remains unclear since GLUT2 has been identified in neurons, astrocytes, and tanycytes ( 1 , 2 , 17 , 28 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether GLUT2 is present in the glucose-sensitive neurons expressing orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides ( 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • T2DM
  • T2DM is a progressive disease which can lead to numerous macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction, amputation, stroke, as well as microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy (2). (sjsm.org)
  • Therefore, it is crucial that glucose levels in patients diagnosed with T2DM are adequately controlled. (sjsm.org)
  • Despite the wide range of antihyperglycemic drugs available, current therapeutic strategies fall short of optimal glycemic control, especially in patients with long-standing T2DM with complications and/or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The most probable mechanism leading to T2DM in thyroid dysfunction could be attributed to perturbed genetic expression of a constellation of genes along with physiological aberrations leading to impaired glucose utilization and disposal in muscles, overproduction of hepatic glucose output, and enhanced absorption of splanchnic glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • Dapagliflozin, the first of a class of selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, reduces renal glucose reabsorption and is currently under development for the treatment of T2DM. (springer.com)
  • 9 The ultimate goal of any pharmacological intervention in T2DM is to limit microvascular and potentially macrovascular complications by maintaining plasma glucose levels within a relatively normal range. (springer.com)
  • 0.05
  • Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average birth weight of 1.55 ± 0.05 kg received 1 of 2 treatments based on their assignment to either the control (CON) group or the GOS (GOS) group in each litter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SGLT1
  • While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • SGLT1 mRNA is highly and significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Results showed a mean decrease of 1.02% in HbA1C levels, decrease of 2.6 kg, a mean decrease of 3.65mmHg in blood pressure, mean decrease of 23.06 in fasting plasma glucose with 10mg dapagliflozin. (sjsm.org)
  • SGLTs
  • We have previously described a novel glucose-sensing mechanism in a glucagon-like peptide-1-secreting cell line, GLUTag, involving the activity of sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This means that the specific radioactive imaging probe for SGLTs, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[ 18 F]fluoro- d -glucopyranoside, may be used along with positron-emission tomography to diagnose and stage pancreatic and prostate cancers, tumors in which the GLUT probe 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose has questionable utility. (pnas.org)
  • Concentration
  • Fructose concentration and fructose-to-glucose (F:G) ratio: juices. (thepaleodiet.com)
  • Glucose regulates free cytosolic Zn2+ concentration, Slc39 (ZiP), and metallothionein gene expression in primary pancreatic islet {beta}-cells. (springer.com)
  • Statistically higher insulin concentration but similar zinc release after a glucose challenge was observed from splenic vein samples, as compared to the ones from the portal vein. (hindawi.com)
  • Net glucose transfer is therefore highly dependent on maternal-fetal concentration gradients [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • hyperglycemia
  • Flavonoids have antioxidative properties which protect the body against the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia in T 2 DM, through acting on the biological targets such as α-glucosidase, glucose co-transporter or aldose reductase. (ijbs.com)
  • The brain is responsive to both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and the glucose sensing cells involved are distributed in several anatomical sites that are connected to each other. (springer.com)
  • Sensing
  • Here I will review some aspects of glucose sensing by the brain. (springer.com)
  • Archer SL, Wu XC, Thebaud B, Moudgil R, Hashimoto K, Michelakis ED (2004) O 2 sensing in the human ductus arteriosus: redox-sensitive K + channels are regulated by mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the temporal secretory pattern of insulin and zinc corelease after a glucose challenge is essential for proper timing of administration of zinc sensing probes. (hindawi.com)
  • fatty acids
  • In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. (hindawi.com)
  • mRNA
  • We found defects in c-Fos activation by glucose in the arcuate nucleus and changes in the amounts of TRH and orexin neuropeptide mRNA, which are relevant to poorly controlled meal size. (physiology.org)
  • intake
  • the model indicated that this difference was accounted for by a 13% (IQR 12) increase in calorie intake (269 kcal/day [IQR coupled with a 2% (IQR 5) increase in daily energy expenditure (due to diet-induced thermogenesis). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HbA1C
  • Results of 100mg of canagliflozin showed a mean decrease of 1.71% in HbA1C levels, a mean decrease of 2.5 kg in body weight, a mean decrease of 2.76mmHg in blood pressure, a mean decrease of 24mg/dL in fasting plasma glucose. (sjsm.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that every 1% decrease in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is associated with a 35% reduction in the risk of microvascular complications (2). (sjsm.org)
  • tolerance
  • The global prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is estimated at 316 million people and is expected to increase to 471 million by 2035 ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • polymorphism
  • ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) R219K (G1051A, rs2230806) polymorphism and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a large Japanese population: cross-sectional data from the Daiko Study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • expression
  • The antidiabetic potential of flavonoids are mainly through their modulatory effects on glucose transporter by enhancing GLUT-2 expression in pancreatic β cells and increasing expression and promoting translocation of GLUT-4 via PI3K/AKT, CAP/Cb1/TC10 and AMPK pathways. (ijbs.com)
  • In silico identification and expression of SLC30 family genes: an expressed sequence tag data mining strategy for the characterization of zinc transporters' tissue expression. (springer.com)
  • Changes in BM or MVM activity or placental expression of nutrient transporters and lipases in pregnancies complicated by abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)