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  • metabolism
  • Elements that cause obesity involve metabolism, several genetic factors, diet, and physical activity, as well as the sociocultural surroundings that characterize the modern day living [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Shulman's research is focused on understanding the regulation of glucose and fat metabolism in humans and its dysregulation in patients with T2DM. (yale.edu)
  • Energy-yielding metabolism in erythrocytes depends on a constant supply of glucose from the blood plasma, where the glucose concentration is maintained at about 5mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cytoplasmic isoform of hexokinase and a member of the sugar kinase family, HK3 catalyzes the rate-limiting and first obligatory step of glucose metabolism, which is the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to G6P. (wikipedia.org)
  • By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2. (bireme.br)
  • PMCA isoform 4 has a molecular weight of 134,683, calculated from its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Watzl B, Kulling SE, Moseneder J (2005) A 4-wk intervention with high intake of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruit reduces plasma C-reactive protein in healthy, nonsmoking men. (springer.com)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase A is a type II membrane protein and an enzyme - particularly a glycosyltransferase - that, in addition to the related isoenzyme B (MGAT4B), takes part in the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the core mannose residues of N-linked glycans in Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like with HK1, only the C-terminal domain possesses catalytic ability, whereas the N-terminal domain is predicted to contain glucose and G6P binding sites, as well as a 32-residue region essential for proper protein folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The galactose permease or GalP found in Escherichia coli is an integral membrane protein involved in the transport of monosaccharides, primarily hexoses, for utilization by E. coli in glycolysis and other metabolic and catabolic pathways (3,4). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Recently, adipose tissues are considered as an endocrine organ which secretes numerous fat and glucose regulating hormones, adipokines, and cytokines like adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the setting of insulin resistance, there is elevated lipolysis and release of free fatty acids into the blood stream which contributes to further insulin resistance via increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and preventing insulin dependent glucose uptake in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The samples MUST NOT be boiled before running the gel as highly hydrophobic membrane proteins, like glucose transporters, aggregate severely at high temperatures due to the hydrophobic effect, which increases as a direct function of temperature. (abcam.com)
  • In this model, the transporter opens to either the extracellular space or cytoplasm and simultaneously seals the opposing face of the transporter, preventing a continuous pathway across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six of these membrane spanning helices are believed to bind together in the membrane to create a polar channel in the center through which glucose can traverse, with the hydrophobic regions on the outside of the channel adjacent to the fatty acid tails of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presumably, it is due to PMCA proximity to glucose transporters in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • All members of the MFS have 12 membrane spanning alpha(α)-helices with both the C- and N-termini located on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • GalP can transport lactose or fructose but with low affinity, only allowing these sugars to "leak" across the membrane when glucose, galactose, or other hexoses aren't present for transport (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT2
  • GLUT2 in contrast has a high Km value (15-20mM) and therefore a low affinity for glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the epithelial cells, glucose reenters the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion through GLUT2 transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it is involved in glucose transport by mediating SLC2A2/GLUT2 glycosylation with controlling cell-surface expression of SLC2A2 in pancreatic beta cells and, as it is suggested, in regulating the availability of serum glycoproteins, oncogenesis, and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The two proteins responsible for inhibiting transcription from the gal regulon are GalR and GalS (Figure 4) (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Glucose-6-phosphate cannot diffuse back out of cells, which also serves to maintain the concentration gradient for glucose to passively enter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the kidney, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the tubule lumen, where it is at a relatively low concentration, passes through the simple cuboidal epithelia lining the kidney tubule, and into the bloodstream where glucose is at a comparatively high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the concentration gradient of glucose opposes its reabsorption, and energy is required for its transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Na+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradient into the columnar epithelia, co-transporting glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease is characterized by a low cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration (hypoglycorrhachia), a type of neuroglycopenia, which results from impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • transport
  • In nontransfected adipocytes, impairment of microtubule and actin filament function inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 70 and 50%, respectively. (umassmed.edu)
  • When both filament systems were impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport was completely inhibited. (umassmed.edu)
  • The two ways in which glucose uptake can take place are facilitated diffusion (a passive process) and secondary active transport (an active process which depends on the ion-gradient which is established through the hydrolysis of ATP, known as primary active transport). (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cotransport of glucose with sodium from the lumen does not directly require ATP hydrolysis but depends upon the action of the ATPase, this is described as secondary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases which form aspartyl phosphate intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two halves come together to form a pore for substrate transport, in GalP, the substrates are primarily galactose, glucose, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • GalP is a monosaccharide transporter that uses a chemiosmotic mechanism to transport its substrates into the cytoplasm of E. coli (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose, galactose and other hexoses are transported by GalP by the use of the proton gradient produced by the electron transport chain and reversible ATPase (1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It transports these sugars at faster rates with a proton gradient but can still transport them in a leaky fashion without a proton gradient present (4). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Upon substrate release, the transporter recycles to the periplasmic facing orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most MFS structures suggest large, rigid body structural changes with substrate binding, the movements may be small in the cases of small substrates, such as the nitrate transporter NarK. (wikipedia.org)
  • While one substrate of particular biological importance is often used to name the transporter or family, there may also be co-transported or leaked ions or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased p38 phosphorylation in livers of db/db mice were effectively reversed by pterosin A. Pterosin A enhanced glucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation in cultured human muscle cells. (curehunter.com)
  • 1995). "Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this mechanism also operates in human islets, MGAT4A may represent a link between type 2 diabetes and high-fat diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In brain tissue, it has been postulated that certain types of PMCA are important for regulating synaptic activity, since the PMCA is involved in regulating the amount of calcium within the cell at the synapse, and Ca2+ is involved in release of synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCA types 2 and 3 are activated more quickly and are, therefore, better suited to excitable cell types such as those in nervous and muscle tissue, which experiences large influxes of Ca2+ when excited. (wikipedia.org)
  • hexoses
  • GalP can bind specifically to the hexoses with preferential binding of galactose and glucose through the pores in each monomer (2,3). (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Results suggested that both compounds reduced blood glucose level, restored body weight, and normalized lipid concentrations in the serum and oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and pancreas. (bireme.br)
  • diabetes
  • This often remains undetected and can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who develop type 2 diabetes usually pass through earlier stages of insulin resistance and prediabetes, although those often go undiagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous studies have investigated the link between birth weight and risk of disease and have found that low birth weight is significantly associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and type-2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A toggle for type 2 diabetes? (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Hence reabsorption of glucose is dependent upon the existing sodium gradient which is generated through the active functioning of the NaKATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • of the cancer cell lines the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 exhibited the highest expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Normally this insulin response triggers glucose being taken into body cells, to be used for energy, and inhibits the body from using fat for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCA types 1, 2, and 4 have been found in glial cells called astrocytes in mammals, though it was previously thought that only the NCX was present in glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • lactose
  • For example, in the best studied MFS transporter, LacY, lactose and protons typically bind from the periplasm to specific sites within the aqueous cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • However, when GalP is not required (i.e. when glucose is available), GalR/GalS will bind the promoter operator site thus blocking transcription and preventing cAMP-CRP activation (11). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The same results were found for certain inducers of apoptosis particularly stimulators of receptors in a class of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) called B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. (hmdb.ca)
  • As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (hmdb.ca)
  • Specifically, defects are thought to occur in key metabolic processes that direct the entry, storage, and oxidative catabolism of glucose and fatty acids ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • What type of drugs work by catching DNA in the open state and block synthesis or transcription? (cram.com)
  • This type of RNA utilizes the site outside of the nucleus for protein synthesis (or the joining of amino acids to create a protein). (cram.com)
  • Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation Precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate On the level of tissue, glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I disorders involve disrupted synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) or its transfer to the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most common severe types include: The specific problems produced differ according to the particular abnormal synthesis involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. (jove.com)
  • Activity and expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) were also found to be attenuated in diabetic mice treated with DPM. (jove.com)
  • We have recently reported the development of a zebrafish model of type I diabetes mellitus and characterized this model to show that diabetic zebrafish not only display the known secondary complications including the changes associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and impaired wound healing but also exhibit impaired caudal fin regeneration. (jove.com)
  • In drug-treated diabetic pregnancies in which glucose levels in the woman are uncontrolled, neural tube and cardiac defects in the early-developing brain, spine, and heart depend upon functional GLUT2 carriers, and defects in the GLUT2 gene have been shown to be protective against such defects in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT2 could reasonably be referred to as the "diabetic glucose transporter" or a "stress hyperglycemia glucose transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother of the infant is a diabetic, and does not properly control her blood glucose levels, the hyperglycemic maternal blood can create a hyperglycemic environment in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • Tooth decay disease is caused by specific types of bacteria that produce acid in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. (diff.org)
  • Basolateral GLUT2 in enterocytes also aids in the transport of fructose into the bloodstream through glucose-dependent cotransport. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Metformin treatment of people at a prediabetes stage of risk for type 2 diabetes may decrease their chances of developing the disease, although intensive physical exercise and dieting work significantly better for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • Although 4/5ths of earth's atmosphere is comprised of nitrogen, the ability to utilize atmospheric nitrogen is restricted to a few groups of prokaryotes that are able to covert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia and, in the case of the legume symbiosis, make some of this available to plants. (intechopen.com)
  • They also give the bacteria access to their roots, allowing them to colonize and reside in the root nodules, where the modified bacteria (bacteroids) can perform nitrogen fixation [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • contrast
  • In mammals (in contrast, for instance, to some functions in insects 1-4 ), ferritin is supposed to be a cellular means of storing iron, 5 not of transporting it, yet serum ferritin levels are widely measured as indicators of iron status. (rsc.org)
  • Metformin has little or no effect on body weight in type 2 diabetes compared with placebo, in contrast to sulfonylureas which are associated with weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • We found defects in c-Fos activation by glucose in the arcuate nucleus and changes in the amounts of TRH and orexin neuropeptide mRNA, which are relevant to poorly controlled meal size. (physiology.org)
  • blood
  • It is the principal transporter for transfer of glucose between liver and blood, and has a role in renal glucose reabsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin has a lower risk of hypoglycemia than the sulfonylureas, although hypoglycemia has uncommonly occurred during intense exercise, calorie deficit, or when used with other agents to lower blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In certain cases, the presence of a drug in an individual's blood may affect certain types of laboratory analysis (analytical interference). (wikipedia.org)
  • Following birth, the hyperglycemic maternal blood is no longer accessible to the neonate resulting in a rapid drop in the newborn's blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • Analysis of the presence of MetS factors showed that there is more frequent MetS in the group with the wild homozygous genotype type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most widespread genotype is type A. Types B, D, E, F and G have only been isolated from Central Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • The glucose is used to make cellulose fibers, the structural component of the plant, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • further, it is possible that you can have this disease and not be obese (there are plenty of skinny Type II diabetics). (blogspot.com)
  • Found
  • A statistically significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events was found in favour of GLP-1RAs when compared with placebo (OR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.80-0.99) and sulfonylurea (OR 0.76, 95%CI: 0.59-0.99), whereas DPP-4 inhibitors showed a neutral effect compared with placebo (OR 0.92, 95%CI: 0.83-1.01). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although "H. salinarum" is unable to catabolize glucose, the transcription factor TrmB has been proven to regulate the gluconeogenic production of sugars found on the S-layer glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification of transporters can be found in Transporter Classification Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • What type of bond connects the 3'-ribose carbon atom of one nucleotide and the 5'-ribose carbon atom of the next nucleotide? (cram.com)
  • energy
  • In addition to the integration of hormonal signals, the brain can also directly sense nutrients, and glucose plays a particular role as main energy source for brain cells. (physiology.org)
  • To ensure a continuous guarantee of energy supply, the body oxidises considerable amounts of fat besides glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • The most commonly used screening method for CDG, analysis of transferrin glycosylation status by isoelectric focusing, ESI-MS, or other techniques, distinguish between these subtypes in so called Type I and Type II patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, twenty-two CDG Type-I and fourteen Type-II subtypes of CDG have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subtypes are numbered one to six according to the genetic cause, in the following order: (1) POMT1, (2) POMT2, (3) POMGNT1, (4) FKTN, (5) FKRP, and (6) LARGE. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesize
  • These mice synthesize a misfolded type of mutant PrP within their brains that presents a high propensity to aggregate but provides considerably much less protease level of resistance than typical PrPSc, and is not infectious C. (stopvivisection.info)
  • metformin
  • Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly being used in polycystic ovary syndrome due to the linkage between these two conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Physicians each recommend metformin as a first-line agent to treat type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UK Prospective Diabetes Study, a large clinical trial performed in 1980-90s, provided evidence that metformin reduced the rate of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes relative to other antihyperglycemic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, the American College of Physicians's guidelines were updated to recognize metformin as the first-line treatment for type-2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • aerobic
  • The ability of S. cerevisiae to dominate in high sugar environments evolved more recently than aerobic fermentation and is dependent on the type of high-sugar environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Before his research, glucagon was considered to have effects on many organs, but he was the first to measure the physiological role of glucagon, based on the effect of glucagon on glucose turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • PrPSc is definitely rich in -sheet structure, insoluble in slight detergents, and partially resistant to digestion with proteinase-K (PK), yielding a N-terminal truncated fragment of 27C30 kDa (PrP27-30) [4]C. (stopvivisection.info)
  • large
  • A large amount of his research accomplishments are due to measurement of non-steady state glucose kinetics. (wikipedia.org)