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  • mice
  • Introduction: The ghrelin gene products ghrelin and obestatin (Ob) protect mice from STZ-induced β-cell death, inflammation and STZ-induced diabetes. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • tumors
  • Malignant glucagonomas are islet cell pancreatic tumors that are discovered because of glucagonoma syndrome (in which the glucagonoma autonomously secretes glucagon), because of local mass effects, or incidentally. (medscape.com)
  • Similar to other islet cell tumors, the primary and metastatic lesions are slow growing. (medscape.com)
  • Human tumor syndromes are usually caused by inherited or de novo mutations in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes within the cells that give rise to the tumors [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In some occasions, the cells that give rise to tumors do not have intrinsic abnormalities in cell differentiation or proliferation but are forced into a hyperplastic state secondarily by neural or humoral factors. (omicsonline.org)
  • intestinal
  • GLP-1 is synthesized by posttranslational processing of proglucagon and is secreted from specialized intestinal neuroendocrine cells, the L-cells, in response to dietary nutrients (particularly carbohydrates and lipids) [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, enzymes are secreted by the intestinal cells that line the villi. (hawaii.edu)
  • Once carbohydrates are chemically broken down into single sugar units they are then transported into the inside of intestinal cells. (hawaii.edu)
  • hyperglucagonemia
  • Although the relationship between hyperglucagonemia and necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is not clear, elevated glucagon serum levels can be found at the same time as this cutaneous manifestation of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hyperglucagonemia is excess of glucagon in the blood. (healthhype.com)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • However, type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterised by a state of B-cell resistance to GIP. (springer.com)
  • The tumor's presence is characterized by glucagon overproduction, weight loss, diabetes mellitus, hypoaminoacidemia, normochromic and normocytic anemia, and necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), which is the most characteristic clinical sign (as opposed to symptom) of this pathology. (medscape.com)
  • increases
  • Similar increases in [Ca2+]i were also observed in voltage-clamped cells, although there was neither activation of a background (Ca(2+)-permeable) inward current nor enhancement of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ current. (ox.ac.uk)
  • On the contrary, glucagon breaks down stored proteins into glucose and increases its level in blood (gluconeogenesis). (healthhype.com)
  • Disruption of liver functioning also increases peripheral glucagon levels (glucose intolerance), owing to its reduced degradation. (healthhype.com)
  • amino acid
  • Additionally, solid evidence indicates that ureagenesis, and thereby amino acid levels, is critically controlled by glucagon. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Four years before the visit, the then 60-year-old female patient had presented with abdominal pain but without skin rash, hyperglycemia, weight loss, thromboembolism, or stomatitis, components of the glucagonoma syndrome which is an amino acid deficiency syndrome caused by high glucagon levels associated with glucagonoma [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The cause of NME is not clear, but postulated causes include the direct effect of glucagon, as well as the effects of amino acid, fatty acid, and zinc deficiency. (medscape.com)