• clarification needed] Disturbance of soil can result in vigorous plant growth by exposing seeds already in the soil to changes in environmental factors where germination may have previously been inhibited by depth of the seeds or soil that was too compact. (wikipedia.org)
  • If 90 out of 100 seeds sprout, then the germination rate is 90 percent. (mofga.org)
  • Seeds produce a hormone called abscisic acid, or ABA, that prevents germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Image Caption: Mike Hasegawa discovered a process that regulates the genes in seeds that control germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • I put the seeds in seed starting mix and into the refrigerator for germination. (garden.org)
  • as well as other species, such as fast-germination tree seeds that are widely used in aerial sowing for reforestation in China, were treated by electrostatic fields to enhance germination, improving germination percentage, and to explore theoretical relationships between electrostatic field treatment and changes in seed vigour. (fao.org)
  • The optimal dosage was 500 kV/m for 10 minutes for treatment of dry or wet seeds for improvement of both germination and root development during initial germination and middle and later stages of seedling development. (fao.org)
  • We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months and the effects of seed storage conditions, germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the endosperm on seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • Seeds and embryos collected in late September or later showed good germination rates. (hindawi.com)
  • Seeds germinated at 15-30°C, but not at 5-10°C. Removal of the seed coat enhanced water uptake and seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • Although this is the traditional method of cultivation, the seeds require a long germination period and show considerable variations in the timing of germination. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos collected in different months. (hindawi.com)
  • A field experiment along an elevation gradient (2000 m, 2300 m, 2600 m, 2900 m a.s.l.) in the Central Austrian Alps (Obergurgl) will test the effects of altitude, soil type, presence of established species, provenance of seeds, and propagule type on germination and survival of species. (uibk.ac.at)
  • control of mobilization of storage compounds following germination of dicotyledonous seeds. (routledge.com)
  • Seed germination papers are ideal for ensuring an optimal moisture content for the most diverse types of seeds and germination forms. (sartorius.com)
  • The seed germination papers can be supplied in different formats and in customised shapes and sizes for testing seeds according to ISTA (International Seed Test Association). (sartorius.com)
  • Germination capacity, photosensitivity, and desiccation tolerance are important attributes that seeds acquire during their development. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In fresh seeds, 100% germination was observed 7 DAF. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Dark germination of fresh seeds increased from 0% at 11 DAF to 86% at 17 DAF and then decreased to less than 20% at 21 DAF. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In general, desiccated seeds had lower dark germination percentages than fresh seeds. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Very cold temperatures can effectively kill the seeds, which could result in the lack of germination. (edmontonjournal.com)
  • The drainage issue can certainly keep your seeds from germinating, as wet soil will inhibit germination. (edmontonjournal.com)
  • In warmer temperatures, imbibing or soaking the seeds in water for at least 16 hours before planting in a well-lit area will increase the germination percentages greatly. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Soaking the seeds in the dark in warmer conditions decreased their germination rates. (motherearthnews.com)
  • For a closer look at what happens when a seed goes through germination, read our article Starting Seeds at Home - a Deeper Look . (motherearthnews.com)
  • I am designing an experiment on the effects of two different wavelenths on the germination of Pinus banksiani seeds (Jack pine). (bio.net)
  • The sprouting of seeds is called germination . (education.com)
  • Microwaves also can affect the germination of seeds. (education.com)
  • If no seeds have started sprouting, rewrap and check again every day until you see germination. (education.com)
  • A possible explanation for why seeds microwaved a short time sprouted more than the control seeds is that the heating opened the seeds' coats a tiny bit, allowing water in and starting germination sooner. (education.com)
  • Aqueous and organic solvent culture extracts, as well as fungus suspension, when mixed with GR24, a synthetic analog of the natural germination stimulant strigol, inhibited germination of conditioned Striga seeds. (bioone.org)
  • Some perennials and tree and shrub seeds can be very slow and erratic in germination. (backyardgardener.com)
  • The germination of seeds as effected by certain chemical fertilizers. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • The vitality and germination of seeds. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • In fact, germination testing is required by federal and state law to ensure that seeds sold meet minimum germination standards. (nativeseeds.org)
  • As a home gardener and seed saver, you can use the same principles of germination testing to make sure your seeds are going to sprout when planted. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Keep in mind, the more seeds you test, the more accurate the germination rate will be. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Do not seal completely as seeds also need air for healthy germination. (nativeseeds.org)
  • You can start checking your seeds 3 days after set-up and continue checking the seeds every couple of days until all have sprouted or look like there isn't going to be any more germination activity. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Most vegetable seeds will show signs of germination after 10 days but harder seeds may take longer. (nativeseeds.org)
  • To determine germination rate, divide the number of seeds sprouted by the number of total seeds used in the test and multiply it by 100. (nativeseeds.org)
  • The lower the germination rate, the sooner the seeds should be grown to ensure the variety is not lost. (nativeseeds.org)
  • For example, if your goal is to have 5 zucchini plants and the germination rate is 60% then it is necessary to plant 8-9 seeds But be aware that other conditions can impact seedling survival in the ground such as animal predation, compact soil, etc. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Seed corn on modern farms comes with a clearly marked germination rate: a measure of how many seeds will begin to grow if planted, and what proportion of the seeds might be duds. (livingchurch.org)
  • The high germination rate of HAGA's survival seed vault is possible because of the company's dedication to using only the finest-quality, heirloom survival seeds. (pr.com)
  • There was apparently simultaneous germination of a batch of seeds in each case. (aroid.org)
  • Modelling germination times of seeds resulted in software programs like SeedCalculator, developed by Plant Research International.Recently new insights in the way to analyse germination data, led to different statistical analysis methods. (wur.nl)
  • The germination of seeds is a topic that has received much attention in Plant Sciences. (wur.nl)
  • Modelling germination times of seeds resulted in software programs like SeedCalculator, developed by Plant Research International. (wur.nl)
  • Jatropha seeds for germination We are capable of supplying Jatropha curcas seeds for germination . (burrillandco.com)
  • Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were performed with a randomized component corresponding to the percentage of germination for a normal distribution or to the number of germinated seeds for a binomial distribution. (scielo.br)
  • Some authors criticize the inappropriate use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for discrete data such as copaiba oil, but we noted that all model assumptions were met, even though the species had dormant seeds with irregular germination. (scielo.br)
  • Conclusions: DiSCount is accurate and efficient in quantifying total and germinated Striga seeds in a standardized germination assay. (wur.nl)
  • Seeds remain dormant or inactive until conditions are right for germination. (illinois.edu)
  • In this study, germination experiments were performed on seeds of six species of winter annuals from Portal, Arizona. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, germination fractions in the first 2 yr are not equal fractions of remaining viable seeds, which is the theoretical optimal behavior, and the germination distributions differ greatly among species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Germination behavior is age-dependent, and germination trials conducted on seeds of unknown ages from soil samples may give misleading results. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Little information has been available on nonhosts of S. gesnerioides that are capable of stimulating germination of parasite seeds. (apsnet.org)
  • When seeds of single-plant isolates of S. gesnerioides were tested against roots of seedlings from Sorghum bicolor landraces and from a susceptible cowpea cultivar, only specific isolate and plant combinations resulted in parasite seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • To achieve our aim of providing our gardeners and commercial growers with the highest quality agricultural seed available that also fits our ethical profile, West Coast Seeds tests our seeds regularly for seed germination , vigour and for the presence of weed seeds. (westcoastseeds.com)
  • Our friends at Painted Lady Vineyard and The Xerces Society have provided these detailed instructions to cold soak and stratify your milkweed seeds to get better and faster germination! (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Slow soaking and rinsing milkweed seeds removes a naturally occurring chemical from the seed surface to enable quick germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Water the newly planted seeds often until germination becomes evident. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Claire, we've had customers tell us that they have used a simplified version of the procedure with just soaking the seeds in wet sand in the fridge for a month, then planting them and they had almost 100% germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • For plants and fruits that reproduce through seeds and pollen, the seeds eventually grow into young plants through the process of seed germination. (maximumyield.com)
  • When seeds are planted, they remain inactive until conditions are suitable for germination. (maximumyield.com)
  • I suggested she do a germination test: put 10 seeds on a damp paper towel and enclose in a plastic bag. (coldclimategardening.com)
  • If you want to get an idea of how difficult some seeds are to germinate, read the Germination Topics at Gardens North , "an internationally respected Canadian seedhouse offering an eclectic collection of rare, hardy, perennial and woody seed, detailed germination instructions and an exemplary level of personal service," as they describe themselves. (coldclimategardening.com)
  • Bean seeds treated with thiamethoxam with doses up 3 mL·kg -1 of seed are higher germination untreated, even when submitted to drought stress. (scirp.org)
  • Key changes in the spore during germination decrease overall resistance. (els.net)
  • Overview of the major events of nutrient‐mediated Bacillus spore germination. (els.net)
  • The spore commits to germination after germinant addition as it releases monovalent ions and leaks Ca‐DPA from the core. (els.net)
  • Chesnokova ON, McPherson SA, Steichen CT and Turnbough CL (2009) The spore‐specific alanine racemase of Bacillus anthracis and its role in suppressing germination during spore development. (els.net)
  • During germination, the spore case appears to split along this ridge, and thus allows the new cell to emerge. (sciencemag.org)
  • The germination is the initial growth phase of a seed , spore or pollen grain . (cactus-art.biz)
  • Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. (asm.org)
  • However, it has been reported that preexposure to antibiotics is not a requirement for C. difficile spore germination but that germination and outgrowth in mouse ileal contents can be enhanced with antibiotic treatment ( 8 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Slightly dry substrate might be the cause or non-optimal germination temperatures or even a dilute spore syringe. (shroomery.org)
  • The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. (frontiersin.org)
  • In response to the right signals, this can lead to spore germination followed by extensive hyphal (vegetative) growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genus Aspergillus , composed of ca. 300 species, contains both pathogenic and saprophytic species which break spore dormancy through three distinct stages of spore maturation, collectively known as the germination process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Surface hydrophobicity and hardness regulates spore germination in Magnaporthe grisea ( Talbot, 1995 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since spore germination is believed to be the first step in the establishment of Bacilli and Clostridia infections, we analyzed the requirements for C. sordellii spore germination in vitro . (asm.org)
  • Unlike the case for Bacilli species, d -alanine had no effect on C. sordellii spore germination. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, C. sordellii spore germination was significantly less sensitive to temperature changes than that of the Bacilli . (asm.org)
  • The analysis of the kinetics of C. sordellii spore germination showed strong allosteric behavior in the binding of l -phenylalanine and l -alanine but not in that of bicarbonate or l -arginine. (asm.org)
  • Basic knowledge about the process and mechanism of spore germination may lead to better ways to either prevent or stimulate this process, thus enabling spore eradication. (phys.org)
  • That, he said, motivated him and his collaborators to re-examine spore germination, in an effort to resolve the controversy, so that the science could move on to addressing the spoilage and illness caused by the relevant bacterial species. (phys.org)
  • Changes inSpore Small Molecules, rRNA, Germination and Outgrowth After Extended Sub-Lethal Exposure to Various Temperatures: Evidence That Protein Synthesis is not Essential for Spore Germination, Journal of Bacteriology (2016). (phys.org)
  • In response to the presence of nutrients, spores can break their dormancy and resume metabolic activity through a process called germination. (els.net)
  • Releasing seed dormancy through scarification and stratification needs to result in adequate and consistent germination percentages, and also needs to be practical and efficient at a restoration-production scale. (usda.gov)
  • Speed of germination is genetically correlated to seed dormancy. (hindawi.com)
  • This may sometimes be due to seed dormancy, a condition which prevents the seed from germinating even when it is perfectly healthy and all conditions for germination are at optimum. (backyardgardener.com)
  • In modern commercial crops, loss or reduced seed dormancy and quick germination are the two key aspects directly related to PHS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Last September in Perth (Australia), during the 13th International Symposium on PHS in Cereals (ISPHSC), the consensus was reached that significant progress has been made to understand the mechanisms of seed dormancy and germination, which can now be applied to developing technologies to manage PHS. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic aims to highlight the current understanding of seed dormancy and germination biology, translate the knowledge into PHS prevention, and realise solutions for the future of the grain industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • The topology of the SeedNet graph reflects the biological process, including two state-dependent sets of interactions associated with dormancy or germination. (pnas.org)
  • An intermediate transition region between the dormancy and germination subdomains is enriched with genes involved in cellular phase transitions. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that seed dormancy acts as a form of bet hedging but that selection for an optimal distribution of germination across years may be weak. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination by presoaking with hemoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L) differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, in desert plant species seed dispersal and subsequent germination in the optimum time an place place are particularly critical parameters. (springer.com)
  • It is possible that within the same genus one species shows hypogeal germination while another species shows epigeal germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, it was discovered that there are rare cases of species where the germination is epigeal and cryptocotylar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rigetti, S. (1998) Weed control in direct-seeded pea and lentil Archived 2013-10-11 at the Wayback Machine University of Saskatchewan Parolin, P., Ferreira, L.V., Junk, W.J. (2003) "Germination characteristics and establishment of trees from central Amazonian flood plains" Tropical Ecology 44(2): 157-169 Duke, J.A. (1965) "Keys for the identification of seedlings of some prominent woody species in 8 forest types in Puerto Rico" Ann. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences in germination receptors and nutrient stimulus exist among Bacillus species. (els.net)
  • To investigate the germination requirements of this species, stratification treatments at 1-3°C for 15, 30 or 45 days on top of paper or in sand were applied. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Most species require 3 weeks or more for germination. (carnivorousplants.org)
  • For seed sellers, the industry standards vary by species, but are around 75-80% minimum germination. (nativeseeds.org)
  • I ask because everything else I've found seems to suggest a long germination time for this species, including two posts on this list that I found in the archive. (aroid.org)
  • As the jatropha is considered a strategic oilseed crop in biofuel production, the aim of this work was to quantify the major reserve components (starch, protein, soluble sugar and lipid) of the jatropha seed and its disposition in the cells during different periods of germination, in order to understand the process of reserve mobilisation and to determine the potentially right time for the extraction of vegetable oil for that species. (scielo.br)
  • To examine the potential mechanistic predictors of germination and first-year survival in two species of Great Basin sub-alpine trees along an elevation gradient on three soil types. (fed.us)
  • We collected germination and first-year survival data of each species while measuring temperature, soil water content, and other environmental variables to examine the potential predictors of first-year survival in these two species. (fed.us)
  • Germination under good conditions following a year of bad conditions for germination also differs among species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A laboratory procedure was used to evaluate species and cultivars for their ability to stimulate S. gesnerioides seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • Some genotypes of the nonhost species Cajanus cajan , Lablab purpureus , stenocarpa , and Sorghum bicolor also stimulated parasite seed germination. (apsnet.org)
  • One cultivar of Sorghum bicolor stimulated significantly more germination than any other cultivar or species. (apsnet.org)
  • All these items can take several months to germinate and are very erratic in germination. (backyardgardener.com)
  • C. difficile germination is unique, as C. difficile does not contain any orthologs of the traditional GerA-type germinant receptor complexes and is the only known sporeformer to require bile salts in order to germinate. (asm.org)
  • As solutions of various exogenous nutrients of similar type and concentration to those found in the phylloplane failed to increase the germination and growth of germ tubes of mature uredospores, and as these uredospores can germinate in deionized water, it was deduced that competition for nutrients by microorganisms in the phylloplane would not inhibit germination of nutrient-independent uredospores. (bl.uk)
  • When environmental factors such as temperature are not optimal for seed germination, ABA levels are high, which causes production of higher levels of a protein called ABI5. (redorbit.com)
  • We concluded that the optimal temperature of 25°C is the most critical factor for seed germination in A. crenata . (hindawi.com)
  • Seed germination is controlled by several environmental factors, such as seed moisture content, temperature, and light. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it is unclear whether high-soil moisture and low temperature during seed storage are essential for seed germination and what temperature is optimal for seed germination. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the effects of germination temperature, water permeability of the seed coat, and the effects of the seed coat and endosperm on germination were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Hayashi E, Aoyama N, Still DW (2008) Quantitative trait loci associated with lettuce seed germination under different temperature and light environments. (springer.com)
  • Seed germination /Sprout vegetable growth Technical parameters: Volume: 250L Temperature range: 5-50 ℃ Temperature Accuracy: ± 0.5. (burrillandco.com)
  • Limber pine germination and survival showed weak negative responses while bristlecone pine germination and survival showed stronger negative responses to temperature. (fed.us)
  • A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive germination mutants of A. nidulans identified genes directly involved in translation and protein folding, a putative malonyl-CoA synthatase, and a ras homolog ( Osherov and May, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For germination to occur various conditions must be met such as the proper amounts of water, oxygen, temperature, and light. (maximumyield.com)
  • Gard no. 52 pp. 314-350 Franceschini, M. (2004) "An unusual case of epigeal cryptocotylar germination in Rollinia salicifolia (Annonaceae)" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society vol. 146 no. 1 Garwood, N.C. (1996) "Functional morphology of tropical tree seedlings", in: The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings, pp. 59-129. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following image shows both types of germination in monocot and dicot seedlings. (daylilies.org)
  • Listen to Sade's musical seedlings sprout in Germination and purchase above. (singersroom.com)
  • Selection for quick germination was unsuccessful, and differences between genotypes were regulated by maternal tissue of seed ball [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Germination is either hypogeal ( cotyledon /s remaining below ground) or epigeal (cotyledon/s emerging above the soil surface). (daylilies.org)
  • Salt tolerance of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) at the seed germination stage is one of the major determinants for the stable stand establishment in salinity soil. (springer.com)
  • We have everything you need to make your plants grow from Organic Compost & Organic Potting Soil to Soilless Germination Mixes! (groworganic.com)
  • Thanks to consecutive anomalously wet and dry years, we found germination and first-year survival to be largely limited by soil type, soil water content, and precipitation timing. (fed.us)
  • During this waiting period, the process of germination is taking place within the garden soil. (gardenguides.com)
  • This can happen when there is enough soil moisture to swell the seed and start the germination process and then a period of dry weather occurs, or seed is planted into a very dry soil and receives a light rain good enough to start germination followed by a period of drought. (mossyoak.com)
  • For germination, water lightly and frequently to prevent top of soil from drying out. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Germination is the budding of a seed after it has been planted in soil and remained dormant for a certain period of time. (maximumyield.com)
  • An isolate of Fusarium solani (Sud 96) obtained from infected Striga plants in Sudan and six other isolates from Japan were evaluated for their effects on Striga germination. (bioone.org)
  • Fusarium solani (Sud 96) filtrates, from cultures grown on autoclaved rice, sorghum grains, and potato dextrose agar (PDA), were more effective in reducing Striga germination than those from cultures grown on wheat straw. (bioone.org)
  • Mutant alleles at the LGS1 ( LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1 ) locus drastically reduce Striga germination stimulant activity. (pnas.org)
  • We provide evidence that the responsible gene at LGS1 codes for an enzyme annotated as a sulfotransferase and show that functional loss of this gene results in a change of the dominant strigolactone (SL) in root exudates from 5-deoxystrigol, a highly active Striga germination stimulant, to orobanchol, an SL with opposite stereochemistry. (pnas.org)
  • Orobanchol, although not previously reported in sorghum, functions in the multiple SL roles required for normal growth and environmental responsiveness but does not stimulate germination of Striga . (pnas.org)
  • Hence, there is a need for high-throughput assays that allow for large-scale screening of compounds or microorganisms that adversely affect Striga seed germination. (wur.nl)
  • Crop rotation with nonhost cultivars, selected to stimulate parasite seed germination, is being used successfully to control other Striga spp. (apsnet.org)
  • Dry conditions mean the plant doesn't have enough moisture to start the germination process and keep it going. (illinois.edu)
  • 0.05) increased the germination rate in the light. (bioone.org)
  • This approach has increased the germination rate up to 97% when planted in warmer conditions. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Hasegawa said that the ABI5 protein can become active again, halting germination and seedling development if condition are no longer optimal. (redorbit.com)
  • When spores sense nutrients they transition back to metabolically active and growing cells, by a process called germination. (els.net)
  • Key players involved in the germination of Bacillus spores and general structure of layers (sizes not to scale). (els.net)
  • 2012) Analysis of the effects of a gerP mutation on the germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis. (els.net)
  • Carr KA, Janes BK and Hanna PC (2010) Role of the gerP operon in germination and outgrowth of Bacillus anthracis spores. (els.net)
  • Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. (asm.org)
  • Dormant spores can remain viable for hundreds of years (or longer) and return to a metabolically active state, a process known as germination, within minutes upon sensing specific nutrients that signal that the external environment may be favorable for growth ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • I have recently had a problem with the germination of spores into the cakes. (shroomery.org)
  • Overexpression of dominant negative forms of rasA in A. nidulans delays germination, whereas overexpression of dominant active forms yields large multinucleate spores where early germ tube formation is inhibited ( Som and Kolaparthi, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data showed that C. sordellii spores require three structurally different amino acids and bicarbonate for maximum germination. (asm.org)
  • The treated spores germinated, despite an absence of both ribosomal RNA and ATP, demonstrating that they were unnecessary for germination. (phys.org)
  • As someone who has been working on spores, and their resistance and germination, for nearly 50 years, Setlow said that he was very familiar with long ago studies that indicated that spores germinated without the synthesis of either ATP or protein. (phys.org)
  • These results support the involvement of ABA in storage reserve deposition and acquisition of desiccation tolerance during lettuce seed development and suggest that changes in seed water content during the maturation desiccation phase are associated with the onset of light requirement for lettuce seed germination. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The opposite of hypogeal is epigeal (above-ground germination). (wikipedia.org)
  • After the slower first phase, the plant develops faster than plants that show epigeal germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lima beans use epigeal germination, where the seed leaves remain on the shoot from the seed and push above ground. (gardenguides.com)
  • I think it is necessary to clarify that hypogeal and epigeal do not refer exclusively to the process of germination. (pacificbulbsociety.org)
  • Genetic and environmental factors determine germination rate, speed of germination, and vigor of seed and seedling [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Various plants require different variables for successful seed germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get your garden off to the right start with our Guidelines for Successful Seed Germination. (underwoodgardens.com)
  • Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of several environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of the invasive weed, apple of Peru. (bioone.org)
  • Why analyze germination experiments using Generalized Linear Models? (scielo.br)
  • Plants that show hypogeal germination need relatively little in the way of external nutrients to grow, therefore they are more frequent on nutrient-poor soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants that show hypogeal germination grow relatively slowly, especially in the first phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • No differences in nuclear behavior were found between direct and indirect germination on host plants or on glass slides. (usda.gov)
  • 1. The lower the pH, the weaker the plants will be in terms of germination and plant height. (prezi.com)
  • Although the major focus will be placed on crops, research articles using model plants to understand the fundamental questions on seed development and germination, which are related to PHS, are also welcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • If you learn about seed germination, you can grow many more plants in your garden! (lovetoknow.com)
  • The phase transition regulators SERRATE and EARLY FLOWERING IN SHORT DAYS from this region affect seed germination, indicating that conserved mechanisms control transitions in cell identity in plants. (pnas.org)
  • But studies on seed germination of aquatic and lacustrine plants are very few. (intechopen.com)
  • Germination is a form of propagation that occurs in most plants. (maximumyield.com)
  • Soaking for less than 16 hours has little to no positive effect on germination. (motherearthnews.com)
  • In some malting operations, gibberellic acid is sprayed onto the barley to speed germination , and bromates are used to suppress rootlet growth and malting loss. (britannica.com)
  • After germination, the new cell resumes vegetative growth. (els.net)
  • Germination is complete when the new leaves begin to photosynthesize energy from the sun to promote the plant's growth. (reference.com)
  • Ecological investigations upon the germination and early growth of forest trees. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
  • The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of pH change were even greater than expected: No germination instead of poor growth. (prezi.com)
  • I've not noticed no difference in germination time or mycellial growth in GT compared to PF. (shroomery.org)
  • Alginate oligosaccharides can promote the seed germination and seed ling growth of pea, it features: 1.the seed germination rate increased 2.the seed ling height, root length and biomass were increased. (burrillandco.com)
  • Germination is the growth of an embryonic plant contained within a seed. (macjams.com)
  • However it was found that solutions of yeast extract or various vitamins and growth substances could stimulate germination and growth of germ tubes of older uredospores. (bl.uk)
  • Various reactions were seen including stimulation, inhibition or no effect on uredospore germination and growth of germ tubes. (bl.uk)
  • However, interaction studies indicated that uredospore germination, growth of germ tubes and infection could be increased by the presence of cells of Cryptococcus, Sporobolomyces and Aureobasidium pullulans. (bl.uk)
  • Leachate from Cryptococcus cells also stimulated uredospore germination, growth of germ tubes and infection on detached leaves but to a lesser extent than the presence of the yeast cells. (bl.uk)
  • Before germination occurs, the seed does not have the required nutrients for plant growth. (maximumyield.com)
  • Water is vital to germination because the seed must undergo imbibition to stimulate root growth. (maximumyield.com)
  • I just noticed that both of them are from Alan Galloway, in 1997 and 2001, reporting germination times of 21 months and 29 months respectively. (aroid.org)
  • This paper describes trials comparing germination percentages of whitebark seedlots grown under operational conditions at the Forest Service Coeur d'Alene Nursery to determine the relative influence of seed source elevation and location, seedlot (collection) age, and 60 or 90-days of cold stratification. (usda.gov)
  • Genes with additive action conferred high germination speed, while slow germination speed appeared to be induced by genes with pleiotropic effects [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • GT slow germination? (shroomery.org)
  • Re: GT slow germination? (shroomery.org)
  • I'd bet, though I have not needed to actually test this, that the dark germination could be brought to 0% by a brief FR exposure after imbibition. (bio.net)
  • Because of the high germination rate, many gardeners are easily able to grow fresh, heirloom vegetables in their own organic gardens. (pr.com)
  • Also selected, graded good quality seed with high germination percent. (burrillandco.com)
  • In the early 1900s, a survey of vegetable seed sold in stores showed that of 12,454 packets tested, the mean germination rate was 60.5 percent. (mofga.org)
  • When the ABI5 protein is active, it switches on genes that prevent germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Hasegawa's research showed that when a SUMO peptide is attached to the ABI5 protein, the protein becomes inactive, switching off the genes that prevent germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • An inhibitor within the seed (probably abscisic acid ABA) ) is gradually broken down at low temperatures until finally there is not enough to prevent germination when other conditions become favourable. (cactus-art.biz)
  • The reader is provided with a good understanding of the complex influences on each seed traced through from initial development to germination stage regarding germination preparation and subsequent survival. (springer.com)
  • Recently new insights in the way to analyse germination data, led to different statistical analysis methods, based on survival analysis and right- and interval-censored data. (wur.nl)
  • Seed germination and seedling survival are obviously vital to a successful planting. (mossyoak.com)
  • Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purdue University researchers have determined a process that regulates activity of genes that control seed germination and seedling development. (redorbit.com)
  • When a peptide is attached to a particular protein in the seed, a process can begin that turns off the genes that are prohibiting germination. (redorbit.com)
  • Germination is an intricate process, and many factors, including lack of water or strong chemicals, can prevent it. (education.com)
  • Seed germination begins when the first root breaks through the seed wall and ends when the first pair of true leaves begin the process of photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • The process by which an organism grows from a seed into a plant is called germination . (biologycorner.com)
  • The carbohydrate levels, in both the endosperm and the embryo are minimal during protrusion and shortly after, indicating the maximum use of carbohydrates in the germination process. (scielo.br)
  • This piece was initially thought up for the ideal of a space theme, but the germination process is about the same thing. (macjams.com)
  • Additionally, many studies have described delays in the general germination process in Aspergillus spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • Few genetic factors regulating germination have been identified, and the means by which their concerted action controls this developmental process remains largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • SeedNet highlights interactions between known regulators of this process and predicts the germination-associated function of uncharacterized hub nodes connected to them with 50% accuracy. (pnas.org)
  • Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the presence of starch in the endosperm of jatropha curcas L., starch cannot be considered a source of sugars during the period of germination studied. (scielo.br)
  • Germination seed SPECIFICATION OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEED EliteNewly harversted seed for germination fresh and dry. (burrillandco.com)
  • Stages of germination of a bean seed. (britannica.com)
  • Germination can be broken down into a series of stages or steps: commitment, stage I, stage II and outgrowth. (els.net)
  • What Are the Five Stages of Seed Germination? (reference.com)
  • We outline two methods to investigate molecular changes during germination: measuring respiration increase to detect metabolic activation and assessing changing molecular events by isolating teliospores at distinct morphological stages. (jove.com)
  • These unscrupulous practices and more led to the Parliamentary passage of the Adulterated Seed Act in 1869, and in 1897, the U.S. Department of Agriculture published the first rules for standard seed tests for germination, seed purity, weed and inert seed, hard seed and moisture content. (mofga.org)
  • from north China, with a thousand-seed weight of 40.2 g, moisture content of 7 to 9% and 80% germination when tested for 16 days at 20/25 °C, were selected and divided into two equal lots. (fao.org)
  • Germination begins when the lima bean is exposed to the right combination of moisture and heat. (gardenguides.com)
  • Complete inhibition of germination occurred when F. solani (Sud 96) culture filtrates and GR24 were applied simultaneously. (bioone.org)
  • An example of a plant with hypogeal germination is the pea (Pisum sativum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypogeal germination implies that the cotyledons stay below the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daylily seed germination is hypogeal, with the single cotyledon remaining in the seed below the ground. (daylilies.org)
  • One population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F 2:9 ), derived from a cross between a japonica rice landrace tolerant to salt stress and a sensitive indica rice variety, was used to determine the germination traits including imbibition rate and germination percentage under control (water) and salt stress (100 mM NaCl) for 10 days at 30 °C. The multiple interval mapping (MIM) were applied to conduct QTL for the traits. (springer.com)
  • We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi) enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this botany activity, learners will create an experiment about seed germination. (howtosmile.org)
  • A single stimulus such as ABA affects transcription factors, which are major controllers of genes involved in complex processes such as seed germination," Hasegawa said. (redorbit.com)
  • The results showed that seed germination was a quantitative trait controlled by several genes, and strongly affected by salt stress. (springer.com)
  • While recent advances describing C. difficile germination mechanisms have been made on several fronts, major gaps in our understanding of C. difficile germination signaling remain. (asm.org)
  • Germination percentage was calculated according to Rules for Seed Testing (ISTA, 1993) and Zhu et al. (fao.org)
  • The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. (hindawi.com)
  • The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. (hindawi.com)
  • The environmental triggers which initiate germination of DSs are thought to include sugars, amino acids, and inorganic salts ( Carlile and Watkinson, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • How do microwaves affect radish seed germination? (education.com)
  • The parasite's life cycle starts with the induction of seed germination by host plant-derived signals, followed by parasite attachment, infection, outgrowth, flowering, reproduction, seed set and dispersal. (wur.nl)
  • Effect of Mechanical and Chemical Scarification on Germination of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. (scirp.org)
  • Volatile seed germination inhibitors from plant residues. (nih.gov)
  • One of the easiest ways to determine viability before you plant is to perform an at-home germination test. (nativeseeds.org)
  • The germination rate can also help you determine how many to plant in the garden. (nativeseeds.org)
  • Has anyone ever tried speeding up germination in any way, such as by using Giberellic acid (a plant hormone, for those who might be curious)? (aroid.org)
  • Disease and disorder research has been conducted in relation to the Seed Germination Pathway and Physiological Stress, Plant Diseases, Dehydration, Protrusion, Salmonella Infections. (novusbio.com)
  • Germination is the beginning stage when a young plant starts to grow from a seed. (gardenguides.com)
  • Genetic approaches to identify phase-specific germination mutants have identified only a handful of candidates. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is also sometimes needed to leach away a germination inhibitor within the seed. (cactus-art.biz)
  • Perhaps germination inhibitor(s) leach out by soaking? (aroid.org)