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  • diffuse large ce
  • Structural alterations of the 5' noncoding region of the BCL-6 gene have been found in 40% of diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) and 5% to 10% of follicular lymphomas (FL), suggesting that deregulated BCL-6 expression may play a role in lymphomagenesis. (uniprot.org)
  • subsets
  • The identification of functionally critical MYC-expressing GC B-cell subsets has important implications for B-cell lymphomagenesis, which mostly originates from GC cells and frequently involves MYC deregulation through chromosomal translocations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Various lymphoid Tfh cell subsets have been identified, including precursor Tfh (pTfh), germinal center Tfh (GC Tfh), and the regulatory counterpart of Tfh cells, the follicular regulatory T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we used gene expression and flow cytometric analyses for the characterization of Rorgammat-/- and Rorgammat-/-Il21RFP/+ mice to demonstrate a previously unknown transcriptional flexibility in the development of IL-17-producing Th-cell subsets. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • This can be broadly separated into the T-independent response, in which B-cell subsets such as B1 cells and marginal zone B cells produce low-affinity antibodies that allow a rapid response to infection, and the T-dependent response in which T-cell help allows the generation of high-affinity antibody and memory immunity over a longer period. (frontiersin.org)
  • The receptors of both chemokines, CXCR5 and CXCR4, are specifically expressed by the two subsets of B cells populating the LZ and the DZ, respectively, suggesting that B cells upon switching between the states of selection and division would regulate their expressed chemokine receptor and migrate to the opposite zone by chemotaxis. (frontiersin.org)
  • lymphomagenesis
  • Disruption of KMT2D perturbs germinal center B cell development and promotes lymphomagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that KMT2D acts as a tumor suppressor gene whose early loss facilitates lymphomagenesis by remodeling the epigenetic landscape of the cancer precursor cells. (nih.gov)
  • These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • follicle
  • Unlike GC B cells, which are clonally restricted, T FH cells distributed among all GCs in lymph nodes and continually emigrated into the follicle and neighboring GCs. (sciencemag.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Here, we show that germinal center B lymphocytes asymmetrically segregate the transcriptional regulator Bcl6, the receptor for interleukin-21, and the ancestral polarity protein atypical protein kinase C to one side of the plane of division, generating unequal inheritance of fate-altering molecules by daughter cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In chimaeras constructed by transferring K-allotype distinct DNP-haemocyanin-primed thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) into irradiated (hind limb bone marrow shielded) recipients the activation of virgin (host allotype) B cells is often transient falling to negligible levels within 14 days (1). (springer.com)
  • This first phase is followed by full conversion of the stromal cells to a lymphoid-like phenotype and requires lymphotoxin beta provided lymphocytes. (bmj.com)
  • lymphoid tissue
  • Second, HIV-specific T FH cells are more frequent in pediatric than in adult lymphoid tissue and secrete the signature cytokine IL-21, which HIV-infected adults do not. (frontiersin.org)
  • Third, the enrichment of IL-21-secreting HIV-specific T FH in pediatric lymphoid tissue is accompanied by increased T FH regulation via more abundant regulatory follicular T-cells and HIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T-cells compared to adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • The motility of B and T cells in lymphoid tissue was first measured with two-photon imaging in the pioneering work of Mark Miller, who found a linear relationship between the distance reached and square root of time in both cell types ( 15 ), suggesting movement by random walk. (frontiersin.org)
  • formation
  • We have identified MYC positive B-cell subpopulations in both immature and mature GCs, and shown through genetic ablation of Myc at these stages that they play indispensable roles in GC formation and maintenance, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Limiting Mcl1 expression reduced the magnitude of the GC response with an equivalent, but not greater, effect on memory B cell formation and no effect on persistence. (sciencemag.org)
  • Memory B cell development but not germinal center formation is impaired by in vivo blockade of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction. (rupress.org)
  • regulator
  • In this study, we show that expression of epigenetic regulator ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (Uhrf1) was markedly up-regulated by c-Myc-AP4 in GC B cells, and it was required for GC response. (rupress.org)
  • Specifically, the role of MYC, a key cell cycle regulator, in GC B-cell proliferation has been questioned. (aacrjournals.org)
  • YY1 has been implicated as a master regulator of germinal center B cell development as YY1 binding sites are frequently present in promoters of germinal center-expressed genes. (jefferson.edu)
  • Our results identify Mcl1 as the main anti-apoptotic regulator of activated B cell survival and suggest distinct mechanisms controlling survival of GC and memory B cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • undergo
  • The germinal center itself is segregated into a dark zone, where centroblast B-cells undergo rapid proliferation and somatic hypermutation (SHM), and the light zone, where higher affinity B-cells are selectively helped by T-cells, allowing them to survive and either be selected as memory or plasma cells, or be recycled back to the dark zone for further rounds of SMH ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • centre
  • In an effort to improve our understanding of the germinal centre (GC), this project aims to measure affinities of B cell receptors through the course of an immune response in order to map out spatial relationships of individual B cells during evolution in the GC. (open.ac.uk)
  • lymph node
  • Thus, unlike B cell clones, which are thought to expand in a confined microanatomical region to produce pauciclonal GCs ( 17 , 18 ), responding T cells are initially evenly distributed throughout the entire lymph node and accumulate in GCs only after they have coalesced. (sciencemag.org)
  • bFcRn was highly expressed by red pulp macrophages and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen and by subcapsular sinus macrophages and macrophage-like cells in the interfollicular areas in the lymph node cortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • gp38, marker of lymph node stromal cell, has been used to identify and isolate stromal cells that acquire in ectopic organs the capability to support lymphoid chemokines (CKs)/cytokine production and lymphocyte compartmentalization ( 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • receptor
  • The CC-chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) can be detected on naive and activated B cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was originally identified as the protein that mediates the maternal immune transport ( 2 , 3 ), it was soon realized that this receptor is a key player in regulating the transport of IgG within and across cells of diverse origins. (frontiersin.org)
  • B cell receptor signaling has been implicated and the strength of the signal may be the determining factor 3 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • stromal cells
  • These B cell areas retained CXCL13-expressing stromal cells but often exhibited inappropriate ER-TR7 and CCL21 expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the relative contribution of non-FDC stromal cells and FDCs to CXCL13 production has not been defined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Background Failure to treat autoimmune diseases with leukocyte-targeted therapies, candidates locally residing stromal cells as possible therapeutic intervention in chronic disease management. (bmj.com)
  • Peak of this activation was observed at day5 with significant increase in the percentage of gp38+ lymphoid like stromal cells (LLSc), this increase is maintained between day8-15 pc. (bmj.com)
  • In GCs, the LZ is dominated by the chemokine CXCL13 generated by FDCs, while the DZ is mostly CXCL12-positive, which stems from stromal cells located at the boundary of the DZ toward the T zone ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • dependent
  • Our findings define a Siah-Pard3A signaling pathway that controls adhesion-dependent exit of neuronal progenitors or immature neurons from a germinal zone niche. (sciencemag.org)
  • As these translocations are generally dependent on transcription of the recombining partner loci, the MYC positive GC subpopulations may represent B-cells with a particularly high risk for malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Immunoglobulin repertoire sequencing has successfully been applied to identify expanded antigen-activated B-cell clones that play a role in the pathogenesis of immune disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will explore some hypothesis to explain the increased proportion of Tfh cells reported in chronically infected individuals and the impact on HIV pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • expression
  • A) Heatmaps and line charts representing the top-scoring FOXP1 target genes clustered with respect to their expression profiles in naïve (n = 2), GC (n = 2), and memory (n = 2) human B cells (columns). (nih.gov)
  • B ) Top panel , Flow cytometry analysis of CD1d expression by B cells from the BMCs lacking CD4 + T cells and bearing CD1d + ( upper quadrant ) or CD1d − ( lower quadrant ) B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human memory B cells have been more readily identified due to the expression of a cell surface marker (CD27 3 ) that is expressed on antigen experienced human B cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Recently, mouse Memory B cells have been more directly identified through the expression of several cell surface markers 4 (including PD-L2, CD73, & CD80). (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • In an unexpected finding, we detected RORgammat-independent IL-17 expression in ICOS+CXCR5+Tfh and in ICOS+CXCR5-Th cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Following this, the Tfh cell can then further differentiate into a highly-activated and germinal center-resident GC-Tfh cell distinguished by high-level expression of CXCR5 and PD-1, in contrast to intermediate levels of both markers expressed by Tfh ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Prevalence of FoxP3+ Cells Does Not Correlate With Ki67 Expression in Canine Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gene expression profiling has identified messenger RNA's that lead to transformation, but critical events transforming cells are normally executed by kinases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Indeed, CXCR4 expression is used as a common marker to identify GC-DZ B cells ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • P110δ was not required for the expression of B cell lymphoma 6, the downregulation of CCR7, or T cell entry into primary follicles. (jimmunol.org)
  • pathogens
  • The adaptive immune system is a key component of our defense against pathogens and comprises highly specialized cells and processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • BCL6
  • Arrows indicate cells that coexpress FOXP1 and BCL6 at the onset of the GC. (nih.gov)
  • proliferation
  • Although much is known of GC B-cell physiology, the mechanisms of cellular proliferation have remained elusive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This recycling process of re-proliferation after successful selection was further predicted to be the dominant fate of B cells: more than 80% of the selected B cells return to the state of mutation and have to be selected again ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • promotes
  • Time-lapse imaging using a probe to measure neuronal cell contact reveals that Pard3A promotes adhesive interactions needed for germinal zone exit by recruiting the JAM-C epithelial tight junction adhesion molecule to the neuronal cell surface. (sciencemag.org)
  • intrinsic
  • Lack of CCR6 increased the dark zone/light zone ratio of GC and led to decreased antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibody generation in a B-cell intrinsic manner in mixed bone marrow chimeras. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • affinity B cells
  • Thus, our model suggests that selecting highly abundant subclones from repertoire sequencing experiments would not always lead to the high(est) affinity B cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Modifications to the AFM setup have been made to provide specificity towards the targeted receptors, and work on a range of known affinity B cells will demonstrate whether differences in affinities are distinguishable via AFM. (open.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, FcRn also serves to rescue IgG and albumin in capillary endothelial and hematopoietic cells from degradation, prolonging their half-lives ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, by deleting phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, which opposes p110δ in activated T cells, we found a positive correlation between increased numbers of T FH cells and GC B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • spleen
  • Since the last few years, many studies have characterized Tfh cells from lymph nodes and spleen of HIV-infected individuals and SIV-infected macaques. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the short-term plasma cells remain locally to produce antibodies, memory cells are predominantly located in the spleen and bone marrow where they can be exposed to circulating antigens and rapidly respond if necessary. (mainebiotechnology.com)