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  • endogenous retrovirus
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cloning of a new murine endogenous retrovirus, MuERV-L, with strong similarity to the human HERV-L element and with a gag coding sequence closely related to the Fv1 restriction gene. (springer.com)
  • Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These are further classified into three distinct classes: short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • provirus
  • The integration flanks of three AKR provirus sequences, Akv-1 , Akv-2 , and a third uncharacterized sequence, were not evident in molossinus cell DNA, which contained at least six different proviral integration fragments. (nova.edu)
  • mice
  • The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV + strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by molossinus virus at the strain's inception followed by fixation through inbreeding. (nova.edu)
  • susceptibility
  • We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogen
  • With tissue damage or pathogen invasion, neutrophils are the first line of defense, playing a major role in mediating the acute inflammatory response. (jove.com)
  • gene
  • Our results indicate that the majority of TE variants are introduced though the male germline and that only a minority of TE variants exert detectable changes in gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Akt1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that was first discovered as the human homologue of the transforming gene in the AKT-8 oncogenic virus, which was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma in the AKR mouse ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • type
  • Orthopox viruses cause a wide range of diseases and even a single type of virus will have a range of clinical course in different individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • emv-14 is of particular interest because spleen cells expressing emv-14 virus escape recognition by anti-AKR/Gross virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • present
  • The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. (nova.edu)
  • Discovery
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • large
  • The genetic distance computed between molossinus and AKR is large, nearly 5-10 times the distance between known related populations and strains (e.g. (nova.edu)
  • In Drosophila , a germ line deletion of dAkt reverses the large cell phenotype in d Pten −/− flies ( 28 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • high
  • 1971. Murine leukemia virus: high frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine. (asmscience.org)
  • We describe an experimental system in which a prerearranged H chain derived from a high-affinity IgG anti-DNA hybridoma (D42) of B/W origin ( 5 , 6 ) was site directed to the mouse germline of the C57BL/6 mouse and subsequently backcrossed onto the genetic background of the original autoimmune strain ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For example, while variola virus caused only a mild and localized disease in some individuals, many succumbed to severe disease with very high mortality rates especially for some strains of the virus (reviewed in Bray and Buller, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • models
  • Moreover, Th17 differentiation of CD4+CD25- lymphocytes from distinct murine knockout/disease models can contribute to our understanding of cell fate plasticity. (jove.com)