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  • differentiation potential
  • He studied their differentiation potential and used gene targeting to investigate the function of cadherin and catenins in mouse development, genomic maintenance and stem cell vs. oncogenic potential. (mpg.de)
  • MIAMI cells proliferate extensively without evidence of senescence or loss of differentiation potential and thus may represent an ideal candidate for cellular therapies of inherited or degenerative diseases. (biologists.org)
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have core properties of unlimited self-renewal and differentiation potential and have emerged as exciting cell sources for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, understanding of development, and disease etiology. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead, typical signs of cellular ageing are reverted in the process of iPSC reprogramming, and iPSCs from older donors do not show diminished differentiation potential nor do iPSC-derived cells from older donors suffer early senescence or show functional impairments when compared with those from younger donors. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is some debate whether c-Kit is a suitable marker to distinguish amniotic stem cells from other cell types because cells lacking c-Kit also display differentiation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrulation
  • Later in development, during gastrulation, the three germ layers form, and most cells become more restricted in the types of cells that they can produce. (hhmi.org)
  • Germ cell specification begins during cleavage in many animals or in the epiblast during gastrulation in birds and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are determined as germ cells when gastrulation is completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • She worked extensively on the developmental genetics of axial patterning, germ layer specification, and other phenomena of gastrulation in mammals, including demonstrating that the node is the organizer in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of the primitive streak will establish bilateral symmetry, determine the site of gastrulation and initiate germ layer formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To form the streak, reptiles, birds and mammals arrange mesenchymal cells along the prospective midline, establishing the second embryonic axis, as well as the place where cells will ingress and migrate during the process of gastrulation and germ layer formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • In line with this, a decreased lifespan of cloned organisms compared with the donor was also observed in early cloning experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs slightly from the one used in other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two best-known species of this genus are Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, which are commonly studied as model organisms for developmental biology, cell biology, toxicology, neuroscience and for modelling human disease and birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard definition of epigenetics requires these alterations to be heritable, either in the progeny of cells or of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunodeficient mice
  • In 2007, it was confirmed that the amniotic fluid contains a heterogeneous mixture of multipotent cells after it was demonstrated that they were able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers but they could not form teratomas following implantation into immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike ES and iPS cells, transplanted Muse cells in testes of immunodeficient mice -a commonly used experiment to test the tumorigenicity of stem cells- have not been reported to form teratomas, even after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to control the transition from an undifferentiated stem cell to a specific cell fate is one of the key techniques that are required for the application of interventional technologies to regenerative medicine and the treatment of tumors and metastases and of neurodegenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • The use of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising approach in the clinical applications of regenerative medicine and cancer research. (springer.com)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • primordial germ
  • This receptor protein is present on human ES cells34, primordial germ cells and many somatic stem cells, including, but not limited to, those of the neural crest35,36. (lifeethics.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to give rise to primordial germ cells from ES. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specification of primordial germ cells in the laboratory mouse is initiated by high levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, which activates expression of the transcription factors Blimp-1/Prdm1 and Prdm14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primordial germ cells, germ cells that still have to reach the gonads, also known as PGCs, precursor germ cells or gonocytes, divide repeatedly on their migratory route through the gut and into the developing gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Furthermore, ectopic expression of Pt-Ets4 is sufficient to induce cell delamination and migration by inducing a mesoderm-like cell fate. (elifesciences.org)
  • It has been proposed that stem cells release angiogenic ligands, protect cardiomyocytes from apoptotic cell death, induce proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes, and may recruit resident cardiac stem cells ( Figure ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Endodermal cells differentiate and together with Wunen proteins they induce the migration through the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oct-4 is one of the transcription factors used to create induced pluripotent stem cells, together with Sox2, Klf4 and often c-Myc in mouse, demonstrating its capacity to induce an embryonic stem cell-like state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand proteins binding to the extracellular domain induce proteolytic cleavage and release of the intracellular domain, which enters the cell nucleus to modify gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic stem
  • For example, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), when transplanted into the (murine) myocardium, may transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and blood vessels, thereby improving heart function and survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite sharing expression of c-Kit, AFS cells appear clearly distinct from ES cells, germline stem cells and certain adult stem cell populations, such as hematopoietic stem cells, on the basis of differences both in a variety of cell surface markers and in gene expression patterns assessed by transcriptional profiling37. (lifeethics.org)
  • For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muse cells do not express CD34 (markers for hematopoietic stem cells, adipose stem cells, VSELs) and CD117 (hematopoietic stem cells markers), Snai1 and Slug (skin-derived precursors markers), CD271 and Sox10 (neural crest-derived stem cells markers), NG2 and CD146 (perivascular cells) or CD31 and von Willebrand factor (endothelial progenitor markers). (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Studying HCM with patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) would benefit the understanding of HCM mechanism, as well as the development of personalized therapeutic strategies. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • 1 year, maintains a normal XY karyotype, and expresses the cell surface markers (alkaline phosphatase, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) that are characteristic of human embryonal carcinoma cells. (pnas.org)
  • A series of related indicators were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, alkaline phosphatase staining, propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V staining, competition growth assay, immunofluorescence, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR. (springer.com)
  • qRT-PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), alkaline phosphatase staining, and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the role of Gas5 during mouse iPSC reprogramming. (springer.com)
  • Embryonic-like stem cells were originally identified using markers common to embryonic stem cells such as nuclear Oct4, CD34, vimentin, alkaline phosphatase, stem cell factor and c-Kit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • regeneration
  • Evidence has been presented that a fraction of cardiomyocytes may be able to reenter the cell-cycle and that limited regeneration can occur through recruitment of resident and circulating stem cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cells also have potential medical applications, especially in organ regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • After continuous proliferation for more than 70 passages, SCNT-hES-1 cells maintained normal karyotypes and were genetically identical to the somatic nuclear donor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dolly, the cloned ewe, was made by removing the nucleus from an oocyte, or unfertilized ovum, of one breed of sheep, and replacing it with nuclear material from an adult donor cell taken from a different breed of sheep. (patents4life.com)
  • The donor sheep had successfully been cloned. (patents4life.com)
  • Now you have cloned the female donor of the "human oocyte" of step (a), without the need to remove the nucleus of the oocyte and replace it with a donor nucleus (from a male or second female). (patents4life.com)
  • How does donor age affect iPSC differentiation into specialised cells and their functionality? (frontiersin.org)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)