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  • Genes
  • There is thus a clear need for somatic tissues to maintain their genetic integrity in the face of environmental challenges, and two types of interactions have been shown to play important roles in the conservation as well as flexibility of plant genomes: homologous recombination of repeated sequences and silencing of multiplied genes. (powells.com)
  • This book summarizes current knowledge and working hypotheses about the frequencies and mechanisms of mitochondrial, plastid, nuclear and viral recombination and the inactivation of repeated genes in plants. (powells.com)
  • The distinction between the soma and the germ cells was propounded by the 19th-century German biologist August Weismann in the "germ plasm" theory that emphasized the role of the immortal, heredity-carrying genes and chromosomes, which are transmitted through successive generations of each species and determine the character of each individual in the propagative chain. (britannica.com)
  • A vast number of specific genes need to be turned on and off at precisely the right time for cells to end up in the proper place and in the appropriate quantity. (phys.org)
  • The researchers also identified all of the mRNAs that DND1 targets, which included genes related to inflammation, differentiation, and cell death-genes whose activity is supposed to be turned off at this point in development. (phys.org)
  • When a cell shuts down these genes, it stops producing their mRNAs. (phys.org)
  • Genome
  • From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this year's best new products shine on many levels. (the-scientist.com)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • Small regulatory RNAs (and their associated proteins) are dynamic and active participants in controlling the genome and phenotype of cells and animals. (xenbase.org)
  • Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution captures and distills the voluminous research literature on plant transposable elements and seeks to assemble the big picture of how transposons shape gene structure and regulation, as well as how they sculpt genomes in evolution. (wiley.com)
  • Individual chapters provide concise overviews of the many flavors of plant transposons and of their roles in gene creation, gene regulation, development, genome evolution, and organismal speciation, as well as of their epigenetic regulation. (wiley.com)
  • Genetics
  • Mukeshimana is a plant researcher and holds both a master's degree and PhD in plant breeding, genetics, and biotechnology from Michigan State University in the United States. (isaaa.org)
  • This volume is essential reading for anyone working in plant genetics, epigenetics, or evolutionary biology. (wiley.com)
  • mRNAs
  • We think that DND1 helps to sharpen the transition from one developmental stage to the next by targeting mRNAs that should have already been turned off, and clearing them from the cell," says Yamaji. (phys.org)
  • DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex to target mRNAs, Nature (2017). (phys.org)
  • 2016
  • According to the paper, 26 countries planted biotech crops in 2016, and 19 of which were developing countries. (isaaa.org)
  • Stems
  • Polyribosome aggregation state in growing tissues of barley and wheat leaf of stems of pea and squash was studied in relation to seedling growth and water status of the growing tissue in plants at various levels of osmotic stress. (osti.gov)
  • chromatin
  • The main interests of the Ā«Epigenetic Regulations and Seed DevelopmentĀ» team are the establishment and functional roles of chromatin states during plant sexual reproduction. (ird.fr)
  • seed corn
  • In a corn industry that still detassels seed corn by hand as a way of controlling who fertilizes whom, a technique that switches sex cell production on or off could allow for dramatically increased control over plant crossbreeding. (scitechdaily.com)
  • animals
  • B M B 221 Applied Biochemistry (2) Application and correlation of biochemical events to physiological-nutritional processes in specialized cells, fluids, and whole animals. (psu.edu)
  • In animals, surrounding cells signal the germ line to begin forming from a single "founder cell. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Although most researchers assumed that, as in animals, sex cells were developing from a special set of cells with a predetermined predilection for the role, Walbot and Kelliher saw two clues that implied otherwise. (scitechdaily.com)
  • growth
  • Comparison of the Stages: Mitosis vs Meiosis Interphase http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/mitosisisg/end.html The same things happen at this stage in both mitosis and meiosis: growth, normal cell function, and DNA replication. (prezi.com)
  • 1. Quercetin- from many plants and beeswax- Inhibits growth and development of Candida. (knowthecause.com)
  • 5. Gallic acid- found tea, oak bark and other plants- inhibits growth and germ cell formation in Candida. (knowthecause.com)
  • A new study by a University of Toronto researcher has found that micro-organisms are critical to the growth and health of plants. (isaaa.org)
  • regulators
  • In addition to microRNAs, which are vital regulators conserved from plants to people, germ cells express endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). (xenbase.org)
  • aside
  • Aside from providing deeper understanding of plant evolution and development, Fitzpatrick's research offers further avenues for study, including how and why some plants recruit bacteria that impact drought resistance while others don't. (isaaa.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • We work on two main biological models, Arabidopsis and maize, and as well, through our collaborators, on natural apomicts (Paspalum) and basal plants ( Marchantia polymorpha ). (ird.fr)
  • Meiosis
  • The number of resulting daughter cells depends on whether mitosis or meiosis is being carried out. (prezi.com)
  • Mitosis leads to the replication of cells and meiosis leads to the replication of organisms. (prezi.com)
  • Both mitosis and meiosis happen inside the nucleus of the cell and go through the same stages known as prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. (prezi.com)
  • http://www.phoenix5.org/glossary/mitosis.html Mitosis During meiosis, cells undergo two separate divisions which result in a reduction of the chromosome number. (prezi.com)
  • Meiosis can only produce sex cells (sperm and egg cells). (prezi.com)
  • The only difference is that maternal and paternal chromosomes are being replicated in cells undergoing meiosis. (prezi.com)
  • stem cells
  • Before stem cells (green) give rise to eggs and sperm, they make DND1, a molecule that helps prevent the cells from being eliminated. (phys.org)
  • Published in Nature , the findings suggest that a pool of stem cells , which will ultimately give rise to eggs and sperm, can only survive if DND1 is around. (phys.org)
  • By halting the production of proteins that otherwise promote cell death, DND1 allows germline stem cells to grow and be maintained in proper numbers. (phys.org)
  • seed stem cells onto collagen gels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • biochemical
  • We hope to address these questions with molecular, cell biology, and biochemical approaches in specific model systems, like Xenopus oocytes, a repository and 'living test tube' of Piwi proteins and piRNAs. (xenbase.org)
  • Innovations
  • The knowledge produced should contribute to key innovations in plant breeding and biotechnologies, a critical step for adapting agricultural productions to climate uncertainties and a growing food demands, particularly in tropical regions. (ird.fr)
  • structures
  • Rather, they are the result of chemical dyes or graphic design programs that allow scientists to study selected structures within a cell. (nih.gov)
  • abundant
  • Hepatocytes, like the one shown here, are the most abundant type of cell in the human liver. (nih.gov)
  • animal
  • Furthermore,'substantial equivalence' does not mean equivalence to the unengineered plant or animal variety. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • A study of a simple marine animal suggests that the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians may have had three germ layers instead of two. (the-scientist.com)
  • species
  • This can occur in some plant species. (prezi.com)
  • Mitosis occurs in all organisms, including single celled species, in somatic (body) cells. (prezi.com)
  • Connor Fitzpatrick grew 30 species of plants found in the Greater Toronto Area from seed in identical soil mixtures in the lab. (isaaa.org)
  • The plants were raised for a full growing season (16 weeks), with each species grown in both permissive and simulated drought conditions. (isaaa.org)
  • The research explores the commonalities and differences among the root microbiomes of various host plant species, dividing the microbiomes into the endosphere (microbes living inside roots) and rhizosphere (microbes living in the soil surrounding roots). (isaaa.org)
  • scientists
  • The book is addressed to scientists working on plant biology and recombination, to newcomers in the field and to advanced biology students. (powells.com)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C., 5 September (IAEA/WHO/UNDP) -- A total of up to 4,000 people could eventually die of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident nearly 20 years ago, an international team of more than 100 scientists has concluded. (un.org)
  • Using a simple approach, a team of scientists at Stanford University demonstrated that low oxygen levels deep inside the developing flowers are all that is needed to trigger the formation of plant sex cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Researchers
  • But despite plant reproduction's central role in agribusiness, researchers have never answered a basic question: Where do plant sex cells come from? (scitechdaily.com)
  • In a set of elegant experiments - Walbot prides herself on "thinking of experiments you can do with basically no money" - the researchers demonstrated that low oxygen levels deep inside the developing flowers are all that is needed to trigger the formation of sex cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • role
  • Germ cells have a special role in the perpetuation of organisms, but they have also become the richest environment for the study of small regulatory RNAs. (xenbase.org)
  • cause
  • The plants that cause the most trouble in Northern Nevada are sagebrush, juniper, and ragweed. (knpr.org)
  • 6. Catechins- from tea and other plants- cause Candida cell wall damage. (knowthecause.com)
  • CCD - the phenomenon that describes the disappearance of vast numbers of bees around the globe - has given rise to numerous theories on the cause of the problem, from interference created by cell phone towers to UFOs. (geneseorepublic.com)