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  • PGCs
  • I would thus urge you to attend particularly to the comments on Fig4 from ref#2 (bisulfite sequencing in PGCs at different cell cycle states) and as raised from both referees employ PCNA staining/short BrdU-pulse in Fig 5d and e. (docplayer.net)
  • Similarly PGCs for this period, also lack known DNA de novo methyltransferases and, although they continue to express the maintenance DNMT1 hemi-methyltransferase, it mostly does not translocate to replication foci of S phase cells, due to the lack of the UHRF1 cofactor. (docplayer.net)
  • Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and a loss of germ cells from the gonads. (biologists.org)
  • In medaka, dmrt1bY mediates a mitotic arrest of PGCs in males prior to testes differentiation at the sex determination stage. (springer.com)
  • GCTs in which the PGCs retain pluripotency and do not differentiate are known as seminomas (also called 'dysgerminomas' in females and 'germinomas' when occurring in the CNS). (swmed.edu)
  • morphological
  • The term spermiogenesis refers specifically to the final morphological differentiation of haploid cells into sperm. (jax.org)
  • Rather than simply providing a solution in a species' need for reproductive survival, sex has been shown to be a much more intriguing phenomenon, directly controlling major morphological and physiological processes, such as development, differentiation and metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beside that, even if there is not a large number of amphibians in this taxon, several different reproductive strategies will occur (Duellman & Trueb), which seem to be suggestive of morphological and functional variations in the reproductive organs. (scielo.cl)
  • Thus, this study tried to analyze the testes morphological arrangement, describing histological and anatomical aspects, as well as some structural characteristics of the germ cells and their cystic arrangement in the anuran Physalaemus cuvieri (Fitzinger, 1826 - Leptodactylidae). (scielo.cl)
  • gonadal
  • Between weeks 4 and 6 of gestation when premordial germ cells arising from yolk sac endoderm migrate from the hindgut to the gonadal ridge, a thickening of intermediate mesoderm and overlaying coelomic mesothelium, in response to a series of signaling changes to organize. (brainscape.com)
  • At the gonadal ridge, a genome wide demethylation occurs where parental imprints are erased (and the silenced X chromosome if reactivated if XX embryo). (brainscape.com)
  • What genes have been found to be involved in recruiting premordial germ cells to the gonadal ridge early in life to establish a gonad? (brainscape.com)
  • ovarian germ
  • Here we report Stra8-deficient ovarian germ cells that grow and differentiate into oocyte-like cells that synthesize zonae pellucidae, organize surrounding somatic cells into follicles, are ovulated in response to hormonal stimulation, undergo asymmetric cell division to produce a polar body and cleave to form two-cell embryos upon fertilization. (mit.edu)
  • Recurrent disease after repeated cytoreduction and chemotherapy hints a poor outcome despite a generally excellent long-term survival rate among ovarian germ cell malignancies. (springer.com)
  • embryo
  • It is remarkable that permanent pluripotent stem cell lines can be derived from preimplantation embryos at all, because, in vivo, pluripotent cells of the early mammalian embryo proliferate only briefly before becoming cells with a more restricted developmental potential. (biologists.org)
  • A few years after the initial derivation of mouse ES cells, it was suggested that they be called `embryo-derived stem cells', a more precise term that would distinguish between these new pluripotent cell lines and cells within the embryo ( Rossant and Papaioannou, 1984 ). (biologists.org)
  • As pluripotent cells of the intact early embryo proliferate for only a limited period of time, it was not initially obvious whether pluripotent cell lines could be established without undergoing malignant transformation. (biologists.org)
  • and (3) transient genome-wide suppression of mRNA transcription to ensure that somatic differentiation programs remain inactive when zygotic transcription is initiated in the rest of the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • The new embryo develops autonomously around the four-cell stage, when maternal supplies are exhausted and the zygotic genome is activated in mice. (mdpi.com)
  • In just few hours after fertilization, the haploid parental pronuclei become clearly visible inside the mouse zygote (one-cell embryo) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thereafter, each blastomere of the newly formed two-cell embryo will have inherited a diploid zygotic nucleus, including a set of paternal and maternal chromosomes [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • methylation
  • Methylation profiling of three CpG islands within the proximal promoter reveals a markedly inverse correlation between the methylation status of the CpG islands and germ cell type-specific expression of Miwi . (prolekare.cz)
  • Male germ cells in the adult mouse exhibit a highly distinct methylation pattern, and both de novo methylation and demethylation occur during spermatogenesis , . (prolekare.cz)
  • These methylation modifications in germ cells are important for accurate spermatogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • Their minor critiques center around further integration of the DNA-methylation status with the cell cycle. (docplayer.net)
  • The authors then propose, in contrast to previous publications, that PGC demethylation occurs passively due to the unavailability of methylation enzymes during PGC differentiation. (docplayer.net)
  • If XY, methylation occurs at birth. (brainscape.com)
  • stem cell
  • The entire process of differentiation from stem cell to released spermatozoa is called spermatogenesis . (jax.org)
  • However, this term was never adopted, and the extent to which these pluripotent stem cell lines represent any specific embryonic cell type or reflect their artificial tissue culture environment is still an open issue today - two decades later. (biologists.org)
  • Cynthia Constance Bridgette Beatrice Heffron, 'Cancer stemness : unravelling the molecular mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation and self-renewal', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (tcd.ie)
  • The concept of a cancer stem cell as the core cancer initiating agent within a tumour has come to the forefront of tumour biology with a cancer stem cell population identified in many different tumour types including prostate, breast, skin, colon and ovarian cancer. (tcd.ie)
  • This tumour's ability to differentiate as well as being inherently malignant makes teratoma tumourigenesis an ideal model to study the concept of cancer sternness and thus identify stem cell markers and targets that may be useful in the assessment and treatment of cancer stem cells in many other tumours. (tcd.ie)
  • Lentiviral labeling reveals three germ layer differentiation potential of a single unrestricted somatic stem cell from human cord blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our findings shed light both on design principles that underlie the role of stem cells in delaying aging and on evolutionary forces that shape stem-cell gene regulatory networks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, GCTs in which the cells take on a variety of differentiation states are designated non-seminomas, of which embryonal carcinoma is thought to represent the stem cell component. (swmed.edu)
  • spermatogonia
  • Spermatogenic cells at different stages are classified into four broad categories spermatogonia , spermatocytes , spermatids , and spermatozoa with numerous substages defined within each category. (jax.org)
  • By day three, differentiation has begun through a series of mitotic divisions into more advanced spermatogonial stages (A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , intermediate and type B spermatogonia). (jax.org)
  • At 5 months, tubule formation occurred but germ cell differentiation had not proceeded beyond the spermatogonia stage. (usu.edu)
  • male
  • When the male has reached 17 to 19 days of age, approximately 50% of the seminiferous tubules are found to contain cells in the late pachytene stage. (jax.org)
  • Female germ cell differentiation operates under a two-phase time course dramatically different from that found in the male. (jax.org)
  • Overall, our data showed that, in male germ cells, H2afx and Mdc1 promote the maintenance of genome integrity. (biologists.org)
  • This study uses a transgenic mouse line that expresses a dominant-negative form of RA receptor α (RAR-DN) and the steroidogenic cell-specific Cre mouse line, Cyp17 iCre, to generate male mice with steroidogenic cells unable to perform RA signaling. (biologists.org)
  • This study demonstrates that RA signaling is required in steroidogenic cells for their normal function and, thus, for male fertility. (biologists.org)
  • Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is an evolution-conserved histone posttranslational modification (PTM), occurring in both human somatic and mouse male germ cell genomes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • It is important for male germ cell differentiation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Fertilization is a very complex biological process that requires the perfect cooperation between two highly specialized cells: the male and female gametes. (mdpi.com)
  • This suggested a role for dmrt1bY during male gonad and germ cell development. (springer.com)
  • reproductive
  • The final stage of sperm maturation known as capacitation is required for fertilizing activity and does not occur until after contact has been made with the milieu of the female reproductive tract. (jax.org)
  • This is no lost cause, since the study of sex determination and differentiation is only the natural expansion of comparative biology and reproductive physiology in the modern, molecular Era. (biomedcentral.com)
  • determination
  • Evidence from various model organisms supports the view that sex determination may occur as a result of direct environmental induction or genetic regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tumour
  • A tumour formed from germ cells showing various degrees of differentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The specific targeting of cancer stem cells within a tumour as a treatment modality may provide more effective cancer treatment in the future as many current treatments are not eliminating the small but significant population of cancer stem cells that result in metastasis and recurrence. (tcd.ie)
  • follicle
  • The size of each follicle also increases through the addition of follicle cells up to a total of 50,000 per ovum. (jax.org)
  • mutants
  • We generated various LIN54 mutants, such as CHC deletion mutant, and investigated their subcellular localizations and effects on cell cycle. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Other CXC mutants also induced similar abnormalities in cell cycle progression. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • spermatozoa
  • Finally, with the release of the morphologically mature product, the germ cells are called spermatozoa or, more simply, just sperm. (jax.org)
  • development
  • Androgens are hormones necessary for proper sex differentiation and development in vertebrates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Successful reproduction requires the proper development of both the somatic gonad and the germ line. (nyu.edu)
  • Computational simulations of mutation accumulation characterize a tradeoff between fast development and low mutation accumulation, and show that slow-cycling stem cells allow for an advantageous compromise to be reached. (biomedcentral.com)
  • teratocarcinomas
  • Historically, work with mouse teratocarcinomas paved the way for the derivation of ES cells. (biologists.org)
  • Because their growth is sustained by the persistent EC cell component ( Stevens and Little, 1954 ), teratocarcinomas can be serially transplanted between mice. (biologists.org)
  • cystic
  • The spermatogenetic lineage cells were differentiated and identified according to the cellular and cystic morphology. (scielo.cl)
  • abnormal
  • We also found that LIN54 (C525Y) and LIN54 (C611Y) inhibited cell cycle progression and led to abnormal nuclear morphology. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • seminiferous
  • At the time of release into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, sperm cells are still not physiologically mature. (jax.org)
  • regulate
  • Much is known about how RA and testosterone signaling pathways independently regulate this process, but there is almost no information regarding whether these two signaling pathways directly interact and whether RA is crucial for steroidogenic cell function. (biologists.org)
  • adult
  • Adult Nog mutant animals exhibit normal somatic gonad structures, but NO apparent G erm cells (Nog). (nyu.edu)
  • Rather recently, the immunohistochemical localization of pituitary hormones involved in reproduction and in background color adaptation has been described in both adult and developing individuals, and the role of FSH in ovarian differentiation has been established. (scielo.org.ar)
  • mitotic
  • Before syngamy occurs, both pronuclei replicate their entire DNA, and nearly 20 hours after fertilization the first mitotic division takes place. (mdpi.com)
  • Then, the zygote must resume the mitotic cell cycle, remodel the chromatin, activate transcription, and initiate the embryonic developmental program [ 2 , 3 ] ( Figure 1 ). (mdpi.com)