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  • genomic
  • The genome sequencing centers are meant to indicate the level of scientific infrastructure and not whether stem cell genomic studies are being conducted at a given center. (umn.edu)
  • In recent years, different high-throughput platforms have been used for the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and epigenomic analyses to search for new biomarkers involved in cancer and to bring new insights into the several aspects of cancer pathophysiology including angiogenesis, immune evasion, metastasis, altered cell growth, death, and metabolism [ 2 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The first genomic alteration found to be consistently associated with a human malignancy, the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), was the Philadelphia chromosome, discovery by Nowell and Hungerford in 1960 [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The third step involves screening for clones that have integrated the vector by homologous recombination rather than by the more common non-homologous recombination in random genomic sites. (jax.org)
  • scientists
  • The term cloning is used by scientists to describe many different processes that involve making duplicates of biological material. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • And, scientists in Tokyo have shown that cloned mice die significantly earlier than those that are naturally conceived, raising an additional concern that the mutations that accumulate in somatic cells might affect nuclear transfer efficiency and lead to cancer and other diseases in offspring. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Just after the first ISSCR guidelines were issued in 2006, scientists reported the derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, because scientists can create reprogrammed cells from adult tissue, the technologies come without the controversy that accompanies methods based on embryonic stem cells. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. (bmj.com)
  • Scientists have now succeeded in producing sperm and oocytes from embryonic stem-cell lines in mice 2 , 3 , 7-11 and have used both the sperm 2 , 12 and the eggs 3 to produce offspring. (bmj.com)
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (coursera.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte 's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a simple idea, scientists and physicians have struggled for more than 50 years to understand how we can manipulate our cells in order to replace or regenerate our bodies. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • As scientists continue to advance techniques in cloning technologies, we have seen an increase in the number of ethical debates on the future of cloning. (harvardsciencereview.com)
  • mammalian
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (google.es)
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • Our understanding of mammalian embryology, and of pluripotent stem cells, is based chiefly on studies in the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • The subject invention provides non-human mammalian hosts characterized by inactivated endogenous Ig loci and functional human Ig loci for response to an immunogen to produce human antibodies or analogs thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, humans lack this common mammalian cell surface molecule, Neu5Gc, due to inactivation of the CMAH gene during evolution. (jove.com)
  • biomedical
  • So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • International Society for Stem Cell Res
  • International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). (umn.edu)
  • New guidelines from the International Society for Stem Cell Research offer a model for self-regulation in contentious areas, write Jonathan Kimmelman and colleagues. (nature.com)
  • On 12 May, in response to scientific progress and evolving ethical concerns, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) issued updated and extended guidelines 1 for work involving the manipulation of stem cells and the translation of that work into medical therapies. (nature.com)
  • early embryonic
  • Gene-regulation networks of mouse PEDs have been extensively studied and reported [ 15 - 17 ], but scarce information regarding molecular mechanism of pig early embryonic development as well as other large domestic animals has limited our knowledge of developmental biology and aspects of engineering their stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers examined Hwang's cell line using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and found recombination patterns that are consistent with its derivation from a parthenogenetically derived embryo. (highlighthealth.com)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • The researchers concluded that permanent nuclear changes occur as cells specialize. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In a series of experiments during mid 1930s, a team of researchers in New York helped establish that bacteria of the species Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans, and in infants can cause toxoplasmosis, a disease that inflames brains, lungs, and hearts, and that can organisms that have it. (asu.edu)
  • More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. (bmj.com)
  • Researchers have also succeeded in deriving primordial germ cells from (murine) induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, 13 and in producing functional sperm 2 and eggs 3 from primordial germ cells generated from (murine) iPS cells, effectively removing the distinction between somatic and germ cells when it comes to the (technologically mediated) reproduction of the organism. (bmj.com)
  • More recently, researchers have begun to publish some results involving the production of gamete- like cells from both embryonic and induced pluripotent human stem cells. (bmj.com)
  • alleles
  • What they found was surprising: in contrast to ES cells produced by nuclear transfer, which are homozygous at most loci (meaning they contain two copies of the same form of a given gene at a specific location on a chromosome, referred to as an allele), parthenogenetically derived ES cells show predominant heterozygosity (meaning they have different alleles at a number of chromosomal locations) as a result of meiotic recombination. (highlighthealth.com)
  • SNP (pronounced "snip") analysis identifies DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide - A, T, C, or G - in the genome is changed, producing different alleles. (highlighthealth.com)
  • ethical
  • Taiwan Department of Health, "Ethical Regulations for Embryonic Stem Cell Research," 2002. (umn.edu)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • This line of reasoning produced a clear experimental test: Replace an egg's nucleus with that of a specialized cell and assess whether the resulting cell could develop into a complete animal. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • If so, a nucleus from a fully differentiated cell retains a complete genome, capable of directing all types of specialization. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Primary mouse placental trophoblast cells are a useful tool for studying normal and abnormal placental development, and unlike cell lines, may be isolated and used to study trophoblast at specific stages of pregnancy. (jove.com)
  • However, the use of cloned embryonic stem cells entails a high risk of introducing cells from abnormal embryos into patients. (vatican.va)
  • regenerative medicine
  • The ISSCR is an independent non-profit organization that was established in 2002 to provide a forum for communication and education in the emerging field of stem-cell research and regenerative medicine. (nature.com)
  • Indeed, PSCs are used for both disease and cancer modeling and to derive cells for regenerative medicine. (frontiersin.org)
  • diseases
  • This technique can also be used to produce an embryo from which cells called embryonic stem (ES) cells could be extracted to use in research into potential therapies for a wide variety of diseases. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Reprogrammed cells also afford novel approaches toward understanding currently inscrutable diseases and for screening drugs to thwart these conditions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In this five-part online course you will explore the history and basic biology of stem cells, learn about new research techniques, and find out how stem cells could lead to cures for diseases and to individualized medicine. (coursera.org)
  • One, although not the only, appeal of the gene targeting technology is the ability to create mouse models for particular human diseases ( Smithies, 1993 ). (jax.org)
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • It has been suggested that CMAH inactivation has resulted in biochemical or physiological characteristics that have resulted in human-specific diseases. (jove.com)
  • therapies
  • It can involve the destruction, creation and modification of human embryos, and has led to the premature marketing and use of unproven therapies. (nature.com)
  • Although much work remains to determine whether nuclear reprogramming techniques will prove safe and effective enough for clinical use, Gurdon's and Yamanaka's discoveries have opened potential avenues toward personalized cell-replacement therapies. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • The production of cellular therapies requires the optimization of four steps: first, isolating and culturing cells that can be readily obtained from a patient in a non-invasive fashion. (stembook.org)
  • karyotypes
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation have normal karyotypes and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. (patents.com)
  • generate
  • This chapter reviews the current progress towards this first step, focusing on the techniques used to generate pluripotent cells, the advantages that each offers and the challenges that must be overcome. (stembook.org)
  • Monitoring of cell morphology before and after DNA manipulation and special culture conditions are a prerequisite to preserve the pluripotent properties of ES cells and thus their ability to generate chimera and effective germline transmission (GLT). (springer.com)
  • This powerful technology allows investigators to generate directed mutations at any cloned locus. (jax.org)
  • locus
  • Once a particular gene has been cloned and characterized, the steps involved in obtaining a mouse with a null mutation in the corresponding locus can be outlined briefly as follows. (jax.org)